Combinations with other elements could. be interesting in relation to building design, e.g. at strong. winds it rains 'horizontally' (driving rain). Solar radiation and. In India, traditional values as well as the timeless way of building terms of their passive design elements (Table 1)—the construction, .. The house itself is a complex functional and formal relationship of hierarchical spaces. by passive solar components having the additional cost of about 9% of the total solar energy strategies regarding the relationship between building design.
The upper stories have projecting balconies that shade the street and their exquisitely carved surfaces provide self-shading and higher surface area for radiation. The house itself is a complex functional and formal relationship of hierarchical spaces.
The raised platform that opens on to the street provides a public front which is actively used by the male members to interact with the people in the streets. The balconies on the upper stories serve a similar purpose for women who can sit and enjoy the activity on the street without being seen.
The public zone is further extended into the interior with a visitor's room in the front. The courtyard beyond that is the hub of household activity ranging from cooking, washing, and children's play.
Around these are a number of rooms serving various purposes. Where the house has two courtyards, the front court serves a more formal purpose while the rear one is where the daily chores are performed.
Many of these houses, the urban haveli's, also have a subterranean chamber to take advantage of the unwavering ground temperature. A few also exhibit the use of ventilation shafts to increase air movement within the building. One of the paramount and fascinating aspects of these buildings is the design of openings. The vernacular designer did not have access to glass as a material and as such the fenestration design was drastically different than today's.
Different kinds, forms and sizes of fenestration have served the different need of lighting, ventilation and visual connection.
The use of different kinds of apertures for each functions made it easy for the designer to make each of them functionally efficient, thus leading to an efficient thermal performance. There were small openings for views, apertures at high levels for facilitating ventilation by stack effect, small openings at the level of occupant for ventilation, ornately carved jali windows for keeping the sun out while letting in the breeze. All openings were generally small to exclude direct solar gains and are provided with wooden shutters that are closed in the day to protect from the insolation.
The use of shading devices like overhangs and balconies provided further protection from the heat of the sun, not only to windows but walls as well. The roof of the Haveli has canopies called Chattri's that provide shade during the day and an open shelter for sleeping in the night. It consists of two rooms towards the north and the south across a courtyard. The height of the rooms is 4 m. There are very few openings; both the openings and the walls are shaded by projections.
Hot and arid zone traditional house prototype. View large Download slide Hot and arid zone traditional house prototype. The mud walls are mm thick; the roof is of mm thick mud layer on wooden beams in one case and mm thick brick and lime plaster vault in another, and the floor is compacted earth in the court and stone in the rooms.
The south-facing walls and the north face of the courtyard wall are shaded. In HTB2, the house was modelled as three spaces for the two rooms and the courtyard.
It is essential to note that to model an enclosed external space in the software, it has to be considered as a built space but the material properties for the roof of the courtyard adjusted to have transparency and total admittance for the solar radiation and the air-flow rate adjusted to the level of a semi-enclosed space. Since the window has no glass, it is simulated using a material of high thermal resistance insulation with an arbitrary thickness of 1 m.
The transmission is set as 1. The diary is used to control the opening and shutting of the windows, as during the hot summer months the windows are kept closed from 9 am to 5 pm and opened thereafter to benefit from night ventilation. Underground chambers or ventilation shafts have not been modelled.
The diurnal temperature range is lower than the hot arid zone. The region is one of the first to be hit by south west monsoon during early June and the receding north east monsoon and experiences heavy rainfall amounting to more than mm annually. There are strong winds all year round, especially in the monsoon season.
The high humidity and temperature cause discomfort.
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Nights are usually too warm for comfort. Rain with strong wind tends to penetrate the building. Bright sky causes glare. Unlike the hot and arid zone urban form, this zone's urban morphology features large open spaces with isolated houses.
These can be subdivided into internal active structure elements; i. An interface provides an external view on the service provider and hides its internal structure. An internal active structure element represents an entity that is capable of performing behavior. An external active structure element, called an interface, represents a point of access where one or more services are provided to the environment. Active structure elements are denoted using boxes with square corners and an icon in the upper-right corner, or by the icon on its own.
Generic Active Structure Elements Notation 4.
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Similar to active structure elements, behavior elements can be subdivided into internal behavior elements and external behavior elements; i.
An internal behavior element represents a unit of activity performed by one or more active structure elements.
An external behavior element, called a service, represents an explicitly defined exposed behavior. Behavior elements are denoted in the standard iconography using boxes with round corners and an icon in the upper-right corner, or by the icon on its own.
Generic Behavior Elements Notation Thus, a service is the externally visible behavior of the providing system, from the perspective of systems that use that service; the environment consists of everything outside this providing system. The value offered to the user of the service provides the motivation for the existence of the service. For the users, only this exposed behavior and value, together with non-functional aspects such as the quality of service, costs, etc.
Services are accessible through interfaces. In addition to this, a third type of behavior element is defined to denote an event that can occur; for example, to signal a state change. An event is a behavior element that denotes a state change. An event may have a time attribute that indicates the moment or moments at which the event happens.
For example, this can be used to model time schedules. Generic Event Notation 4. A passive structure element is a structural element that cannot perform behavior.
Active structure elements can perform behavior on passive structure elements. Passive structure elements are often information or data objects, but they can also represent physical objects.
Generic Passive Structure Element Notation 4. A collaboration is an aggregate of two or more active structure elements, working together to perform some collective behavior.