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Freud also begins Civilization by countering an objection to Future of an II. Re- Articulation of the Pleasure Principle. A. Double-sided nature of the pleasure principle: Social relations: society, social legislation, other human beings—all of these V. Civilization as a Source of Our Unhappiness, Our Malaise or Discontent. Civilization as a Source of Unhappiness: Freud. AJ 2. Adjusts and Regulates Human Relations: Establishes conventions for interactions. Bertrand Russell didn't understand why people were so unhappy all the time. He grew up in a This is Part 1 in a 2-part series. (You can read.
Rolland agrees with Freud about the illusory nature of religion, but he maintains that humans share a common feeling of innate religiosity. Rolland calls this an "oceanic" feeling in which the individual feels bonded with the entire world and the whole human race.
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It is a sense of oneness, boundlessness, limitlessness. Instead, he explains it by turning to psychoanalytic experience. This is the stage that, according to Freud, all infants go through immediately after birth until about the second or third year of life.
In this stage, the child is pure ego and does not yet distinguish between the subjective self and an objective outside world. The world emerges as an "other," in short, only as a negative experience for the child: The objective world for Freud is always nothing other than the object of desire, and it makes its presence known by the fact that the ego cannot satisfy its own desire, but that this satisfaction must come from elsewhere, from an other that the ego cannot control.
He notes that it is not uncommon for such remnants of previous stages of one's psychic development to remain as part of the psyche even after this stage as such has been superseded. The "oceanic" feeling is just such a psychic remnant of our narcissistic ego. See Freud Reader pp. Hence religions project their gods typically as father figures, who are allusions to the desire for such a protective figure. See Freud Reader II.
Re-Articulation of the Pleasure Principle A.
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Double-sided nature of the pleasure principle: In its positive manifestation, the pleasure principle simply names the egoistic drive for the satisfaction of all our demands; it is a drive to gain pleasure. This leads to a second, negative expression of the pleasure principle; the attempt to avoid displeasure as much as possible. In this category Freud includes scientific activity or other forms of professional achievement.
These are paths of least resistance. Closest connection to reality. Here Freud includes all forms of illusion, including religious fervor, fantasy, escape into art, etc. These overlap with what Freud elsewhere refers to as "fantasy. Here we treat the symptoms our displeasure itselfnot the causes the reasons for our displeasure. As strategies of avoidance and denial, these can increase the real displeasure they are intended to circumvent.
Typical responses to this need for pleasure and protection from displeasure: Learning to "sip" rather than "guzzle"!
Instead of being "episodic" and appearing by chance, pleasure can be managed and controlled--like having a full cupboard or pantry to which you can turn whenever you have a need to be stilled. In the economy of pleasure, we sacrifice intensity binge drinking! See Freud Reader Civilization itself as a mechanism or tactic for the re-distribution of pleasure; -- not only in economy of individual pleasure, but also -- more equal distribution of pleasure among individuals; -- demands compromises in our innate ego-centrism.
But the third category, social relations, seems as though it should be under human control. We cannot explain why we cannot dispense with social suffering, why we cannot regulate our social interactions in such a way that they do not avoid the greatest displeasure for all.
This leads Freud to one of his central hypotheses: The reason why we cannot dispense with social displeasure is because a piece of nature lies behind social conflict. See Freud Reader p. The conflict that arises for us as social conflict is a reflection of the tensions that structure the human psyche.
We cannot escape social conflict because it is merely a re-iteration on the communal level of the psychic conflicts of the individual.
Nature, in short, remains the common denominator of all our sources of pain.Civilization II Council - Medieval
This will lead Freud to the formulation of a new thesis: Civilization, although its purpose would seem to be amelioration of human misery and suffering, is actually partially responsible for that suffering, according to Freud. This explains our subliminal hostility toward civilization. Is there really no way to avoid the civil disorder when you grow other than happiness benefits, I mean?
I know I heard the civil disorder moaning noise a lot when I played so there probably isn't really a way There are several potential ways, but it depends a lot on your situation. I haven't gone into the relevant mechanics in detail yet, but I'll try to outline how it can be done. First let's look at the default situation. On Deity difficulty, the first citizen in every city is initially content but every citizen after that is unhappy.
This means that once your city hits size 2, it has 0 happy citizens and 1 unhappy citizens and therefore goes into civil disorder. Now it actually gets much worse from there. For every government type there is a threshold number of cities beyond which citizens in random cities are made unhappier for every new city you build. I don't have the threshold number memorized for every government type, but it's much higher for the good governments like Democracy than for the terrible ones like Despotism.
The upshot is that if you have a large number of cities on Deity difficulty and are still a Despotism or Monarchy, many or all of them will start to have their FIRST citizen be unhappy instead of content.
Which means the city is immediately in civil disorder upon creation. Which means the city is completely non-functional. In principle you can combat unhappiness in many ways. The trouble is that most of them are entirely unavailable at the beginning and the rest suck for various reasons. Also, which ones are available depends on your government.
Every military unit in a city up to 3 makes one unhappy citizen content. Thus if you build a military unit in a size 1 city before it grows to size 2, the city will not be in civil disorder at size 2.
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But it will go into disorder at size 3 unless you build yet another military unit and so on. The advantage of this tactic is that you can use it right from the beginning of the game. Additionally, military units are useful on defense.
At first glance it's the smart approach. However, this can eat your civilization alive if used improperly. The first problem is that at the start of the game the only military unit you can build are Warriors. That problem is mitigated if you luck out and start with Bronze Working or Warrior Code or maybe Horseback Riding for free. However, then the second problem is even worse: And the thing you need most at that point in the game is more Settlers. Every city you build is another 2 tiles you can work, greatly increasing your Science gain and capability to expand still faster in the future.
The faster you expand, the bigger your country is going to be and the sooner you're going to be functional. The third problem is that the military unit s drain your Production with their upkeep. That slows your Settler building down even further.
There is basically no production to spare in the early stages. The fourth problem is that this is a treadmill. All you do is put off the size at which your cities go into disorder slightly, but only by spending a bunch of turns building the military unit- which means you're going to be closer to the next size increase.
Also your upkeep costs will rise. So suddenly your cities will be in disorder everywhere after you transition. And you can't then use your martial law troops as an army either since fielding your troops makes your citizens even angrier as a Republic. So you have to disband a bunch of units and use one of the other techniques to reduce unhappiness.
This is very wasteful. Each Temple will make 2 unhappy citizens content in that city. So a city with a Temple can go up to size 3 without going into disorder.
The advantage of this is that it will continue to work when you switch to Republic- and you'll definitely want Temples in lots of places later in the game, so building them isn't a waste. But this is arguably even worse.