Relationship between scarcity and shortages of teachers

Teacher shortage getting worse, say MPs - BBC News

relationship between scarcity and shortages of teachers

The annual nationwide listing of areas with teacher shortages, compiled by are being hired as teachers to help stem a years-long shortage. In this installment of LPI's Solving Teacher Shortages blog series, we've and I have had time to develop a trusting relationship with her. Like individuals, governments and societies experience scarcity because human Scarcity – the condition we face with limited resources to satisfy unlimited.

For example, high schools in large urban areas usually attract a teaching force that is less experienced, younger, and less well prepared to teach high school subjects than teachers hired at nearby suburban schools. Therefore, information about the distribution of the teaching force needs to be presented in terms of teacher variables such as qualifications to understand fully how well the supply of teachers meets the demand for teachers at schools of various types, levels, and locations.

Such analyses of the teaching force are possible with existing teacher data bases. Little is known, however, about the characteristics of applicants from which entering teachers are selected as a function of school location. Unless information about applicants is known, it is not possible to determine whether the supply of teachers available to various schools is adequate, or whether difficulty in hiring qualified teachers is due to hiring practices or other factors.

This distribution problem stems from teachers' behavioral response to school location, one of the many variables affecting the supply of teachers available to a school. Supply obviously can vary from school to school since supply is a relationship between the number of qualified individuals who would be willing to teach and such incentives as the salary, working conditions offered, the location of the school, and other alternative career opportunities.

relationship between scarcity and shortages of teachers

Teacher Shortage Issues Policy makers responsible for ensuring the effectiveness of public education are necessarily concerned that the supply of qualified teachers is sufficient for all schools. Consequently, the topic of actual and potential teacher shortages is being addressed continually.

Teacher shortage getting worse, say MPs

Only occasionally is there concern about teacher surpluses, although that, too, can be a significant policy issue especially for state governments if the capacity for preparing teachers in certain fields is well in excess of demand.

Teacher Supply, Demand, and Quality: Policy Issues, Models, and Data Bases. The National Academies Press. The supply of teachers—in gross numbers—has generally been well in excess of demand. During the early s, however, it appeared that general teacher shortages could develop in the late s and s. High teacher attrition from the profession partly due to low salaries and poor working conditions, Increasing teacher retirement rates due to an aging teacher force, Rising public school enrollments due to the echo of the baby boom, Continuing decline in teacher-pupil ratios, Falling enrollments in teacher preparation programs, Decreasing interest among women in teaching due to more lucrative opportunities in other professions, and Constriction in the numbers of entering teachers because of more stringent entry standards including entry-level teacher tests and early performance assessments.

Most of these trends did not develop, nor did teacher shortages materialize. Both attrition and retirement rates were lower than expected, a behavioral response on the part of teachers, which for some teachers was probably due to the desire for a high quality of life combined with financial conditions that required a family to have two incomes. Consider the actual trend for each of the projected trends. In the early s, attrition rates for public school teachers were estimated to be 8 percent based on an old study Metz and Fleischman, More recent data show that the annual teacher attrition from —88 to —89 was 5.

This lower attrition rate is one of the main reasons why the projected teacher shortages have not materialized. There are several reasons for the lower attrition rate.

relationship between scarcity and shortages of teachers

First, the proportion of young teachers was considerably smaller in the late s than in the early s, and middle-aged teachers have a lower attrition rate than young teachers. Second, women are leaving teaching at all-time low rates, and when they do leave they more often return and take shorter breaks from teaching Grissmer and Kirby, This shift has little to do with salary or working conditions, but rather is due to the increasing importance of women's salaries as part of family income over the last 20 years.

Third, new teachers are more often drawn from the 30—45 age group Murnane and Olsen, ; Kirby et al. Increasing Teacher Retirement Rates. Because the average age of the teaching force has been gradually increasing for a number of years, teacher retirement rates have been increasing and are expected to continue to increase during the next 15 years.

Since the average age of teachers is approximately 42, half of all teachers are within 13 years of retirement eligibility. However, most teachers do not retire at age 55; instead, retirement in the 62—65 age range is becoming more common. This slower rate of retirement means that new teacher demand is increasing more slowly than previously thought, and it is more likely that large numbers of teachers will retire during the — period than during the s.

Richard Ingersoll - The Myth of Teacher Shortages

Choices involve trading off the expected value of one opportunity against the expected value of its best alternative. The choices people make have both present and future consequences. The evaluation of choices and opportunity costs is subjective; such evaluations differ across individuals and societies.

relationship between scarcity and shortages of teachers

Incentives People respond predictably to positive and negative incentives. Rewards are positive incentives that make people better off. Penalties are negative incentives that make people worse off. Growth Investment in factories, machinery, new technology, and in the health, education, and training of people can raise future standards of living. It results from investments in human and physical capital, research and development, technological change, and improved institutional arrangements and incentives.

Historically, economic growth has been the primary vehicle for alleviating poverty and raising standards of living around the world. Differences in economic growth are explained by differences in institutional arrangements, incentives to invest and the openness of markets to trade.

Key Ideas Scarcity — the condition we face with limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants, which compels us to choose among alternatives. The current context of standards and accountability also complicates the problem of retaining new teachers and contributes to teacher turnover.

Teachers as a group report that they are dissatisfied by insufficient autonomy and control over teaching.

Teacher shortage leaves English schools in crisis, watchdog says

Low salaries and lack of respect from the public also pose a challenge for teacher retention. However, although the extrinsic rewards may not attract people to the profession, lack of satisfaction with these rewards is frequently cited as a reason for leaving. Researchers speculate that when receipt of intrinsic rewards is thwarted through student discipline problems, for example, or insufficient autonomy in the classroomteachers become less willing to tolerate the low salaries and lack of public respect Goodlad, Policy Recommendations What can states and districts do to better retain teachers?

Researchers and analysts have suggested the following strategies: Reward those willing to teach in high-need areas where teacher retention is problematic by giving them higher salaries than those teaching in areas and fields in which there is a glut of qualified teachers NASBE, Creating high-quality induction programs for new teachers, requiring districts to offer these programs, and providing funding to support the programs. She cites the example of school districts, such as those in Cincinnati, Columbus, and Toledo, Ohio, who have been able to reduce the attrition rates of new teachers by more than two-thirds by connecting new teachers with expert mentors and providing both with joint release time.

Such programs not only encourage new teachers to stay in the profession, but also enable them to become competent more quickly. Darling-Hammond also recommends developing peer review systems that focus on improving the performance of new teachers and providing professional development opportunities that are targeted to the particular needs of individual teachers.

Developing regulations prohibiting out-of-field teaching.

relationship between scarcity and shortages of teachers

Implement practices that place experienced rather than novice teachers with the students with greatest need, provide new teachers with additional release time, and limit their extracurricular responsibilities Goodwin, Adopting policies that include teachers in school-based decision making.

Growing your own teachers. Rural and high-poverty districts and schools should encourage graduates and paraprofessionals already familiar with the culture and challenges associated with those environments to become certified Collins, Encouraging or requiring universities to develop teacher education programs that focus on providing potential teachers with the specific skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in schools with high turnover rates NASBE, For example, require schools of education to develop teacher education programs that focus on the challenges associated with teaching in urban schools Claycomb, Implementing policies that support reduction of class size and increasing funding for quality resources, facilities, and materials in high-poverty schools.

Teacher shortage leaves English schools in crisis, watchdog says | Education | The Guardian

Teachers in such schools might be given additional preparation time, as well as access to additional professional development that focuses on the particular challenges associated with teaching in a high-poverty, urban environment Claycomb, ; NASBE, The Challenge The research suggests that if policymakers and education leaders do not understand the nature of the teacher shortage, the solutions that they develop will be ineffective in addressing that problem and may even create new problems in their wake.

If states and districts react to news about the teacher shortage by developing programs that simply attract more candidates to the profession and quickly prepare them to enter the classroom, then they risk wasting valuable resources and undermining the quality of education that children receive; all programs must be designed to produce teachers who have the skills, knowledge, and commitment necessary to teach effectively in high-need areas.

Similarly, if states and districts do not address the role that high teacher turnover plays relative to the teacher shortage, and they do not develop policies and initiatives that address the causes of high turnover in schools, then they will not effectively address the problem, and they will undermine efforts to provide all students with a quality education. Teacher turnover and teacher quality: Teachers College Record, 99 129— A picture of the teacher pipeline: Education Week Quality Counts19 18 States' uneven teacher supply complicates staffing of schools.

Education Week, 18 261, 10— High-quality urban school teachers: What they need to enter and to remain in hard-to-staff schools. The State Education Standard, 1 117— Attracting and retaining teachers in rural areas.

Solving the dilemmas of teacher supply, demand, and standards. National Commission on Education and America's Future.

The challenge of staffing our schools. Educational Leadership, 58 812— Teaching for high standards: What policymakers need to know and be able to do. Staffing up and dropping out: Unintended consequences of high demand for teachers. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 5 16 [Electronic journal]. A place called school.

relationship between scarcity and shortages of teachers

Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory. Teacher turnover and teacher quality. Teachers College Record, 99 144— The changing teaching environment.