A comprehensive literature review of peer-reviewed music training studies was Foreign language pronunciation skills and brain response to duration The relation between rhythm and reading-related skills continues to be. The relationship between music and language achievement in early childhood by Judy In the fall of , this study was conducted in the public schools of Helena, Montana, to see if a statistically .. basic components of language: listening, speaking, reading, The review of literature pointed to a variety of sources. Reading Music through Literature: Introduction . A similar interdisciplinary frame might be used to interrogate text–music relationships in other musical genres, the contract between composer and listener in defining program music to the study also confirms Bantock's significance in the development of.
The relation between rhythm and reading-related skills continues to be significant in later stages of language development. Tierney and Kraus b found that beat tapping variability to an isochronous metronome at a 2 Hz rate negatively correlated with reading skills in adolescents, such that those who tapped to the beat more consistently were more likely to have better performance on the reading measures.
Correlational studies in adults have shown that musicians have greater sensitivity to speech rhythm Marie et al.
The Relationship between Music and Language
Over the course of aging, there is evidence that early musical training is associated with protection against age-related linguistic and cognitive declines Parbery-Clark et al.
However, as noted in Buteraassociations with musical training in these correlational studies cannot be interpreted in favor of causality in the absence of longitudinal data that rules out other genetic and environmental contributions to the observed findings of neural enhancements in individuals with musical training. If enhanced language skills and musical skills are correlated, then would individuals with language disorders also have deficits in musical processing?
Research on reading disabilities and language impairment suggests that this is often the case e. Seminal work by Overy revealed that a small group of children with reading disability improved their phonological awareness and spelling skills faster during an 8-week period of music instruction than during the same amount of time with no music training.
Sensitivity to musical rhythm predicted significant variance in phonological awareness concurrently and longitudinally in year-olds with dyslexia Huss et al. Difficulties processing the prosodic aspect of speech i. Given these connections, musical practice holds promise as a tool to contribute to reading skills, potentially via a pathway of enhancing children's sensitivity to prosodic aspects of speech. Correlational evidence does not, of course, exclude potential effects of self-selection or environmental and genetic differences that could alternatively account for enhanced language skills in musicians Schellenberg, Evidence from longitudinal studies that administer a controlled and specific amount of musical training is crucial for investigating a possible causal influence of music on non-musical skills.
The potential that music training could enhance reading skills is especially pertinent now that there are ongoing debates in educational systems about the most effective strategies for impacting academic achievement in the core curriculum. However, it is important to note that much of this work has focused on training-related brain changes rather than behavioral outcomes ; the significance for academic achievement of these modifications in brain activity is difficult to ascertain in the absence of reporting of behavioral gains in language skills as discussed in Evans et al.
As reviewed in the present study, a considerable collection of controlled training studies has provided positive evidence for the hypothesis that musical training transfers to literacy-related skills. Taken as a whole, however, the range of studies published to date present a rather mixed set of results, marked by a large range of potential outcome measures related to literacy skills.
To assess and quantify the state of the evidence that may potentially support the hypothesis that musical training in children transfers into enhancements in literacy-related skills, we first set out to delineate the subset of peer-reviewed papers that directly address this issue via training and pre- post-assessment designs. A meta-analytic approach is useful in assessing the efficacy of music training for language outcomes and identifying the attributes of music training paradigms that are relevant to specific reading outcomes.
The present meta-analysis is thus aimed at synthesizing previous research on music training and reading-related outcomes. The following research questions were examined: Does music training improve reading-related outcomes when other reading instruction is controlled for?
Are certain aspects of learning how to read i. Does the age of participants account for variability in the efficacy of the training? Does the quantity of music training impact the efficacy of the training, and how many hours of training are needed to affect changes in reading-related outcomes? Does the design of the control group condition moderate outcomes? Materials and methods Literature search Search strategies The goal of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of musical interventions on reading-related measures.
To find all articles that met our criteria, we conducted a literature search using the PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and ProQuest article databases. ProQuest functioned as a meta-database, allowing us to search 12 databases simultaneously: The search terms used in each of the three searches are listed in Supplementary Table 1. In total, the search returned articles whose article titles were searched for relevance to the topic. Additionally, to pass this first screening phase, each article could not be a conference presentation, thesis or dissertation, or trade newspaper or magazine article, and had to be written in English.
A preliminary search of these titles narrowed down the potentially relevant articles to The abstracts of these remaining articles were then reviewed for inclusion criteria and relevance.
The criteria in this second phase of screening required that articles not be a review or meta-analysis, that they have a music intervention with a control group, and that they investigated reading-related outcomes. Inclusion and exclusion criteria In our literature review, we defined inclusion and exclusion criteria based on meta-analysis guidelines for distinguishing features of studies e. Only articles that met the following criteria were included in the study: Had an intervention with a control group i.
Was a peer-reviewed publication i. This criteria was adapted to ensure a minimally acceptable level of quality and rigor. This approach coincides with the National Reading Panel's standards for meta-analysis Lonigan and Shanahan, and with previous meta-analysis on literacy education e.
Reported phonological or reading-related outcomes. Assessed outcomes pre- and post-intervention. Provided sufficient data to extract effect sizes means, SD, and N, pre- and post-intervention, for the same participants in each group. Strait and Kraus report perceptual advantages in musicians for hearing and neural encoding of speech in background noise.
They also argue that musicians possess a neural proficiency for selectively engaging and sustaining auditory attention to language and that music thus represents a potential benefit for auditory training. Their study thus supports the notion of a strong relationship between linguistic and musical rhythm in songs.
Does Music Training Enhance Literacy Skills? A Meta-Analysis
The fifth paper of this group Omigie and Stewart, demonstrates that the difficulties amusic individuals have with real-world music cannot be accounted for by an inability to internalize lower-order statistical regularities but may arise from other factors. Although there are still some differences between music and speech-processing, there thus is growing evidence that speech and music processing strongly overlap. They showed that long-term vocal—motor training might lead to an increase in volume and microstructural complexity as indexed by fractional anisotropy measures of the arcuate fasciculus in singers.
Most likely, these anatomical changes reflect the necessity in singers of strongly linking together frontal and temporal brain regions. Typically, these regions are also involved in the control of many speech functions. The beneficial impact of music on speech functions has also been demonstrated by Vines et al. They examined whether the melodic intonation therapy MIT in Broca's aphasics can be improved by simultaneously applying anodal transcranial direct current stimulation tDCS.
In fact, they showed that the combination of right-hemisphere anodal-tDCS with MIT speeded up recovery from post-stroke aphasia. In addition to these 12 research papers there are 8 review and opinion papers that highlight the tight link between music and language.
Patel proposes the so-called OPERA hypothesis with which he explains why music is beneficial for many language functions. According to the OPERA hypothesis, when these conditions are met, neural plasticity drives the networks in question to function with higher precision than needed for ordinary speech communication. While Patel's paper is more an opinion paper that puts musical expertise into a broader context, the seven other reviews more or less emphasize specific aspects of the current literature on music and language.
Milovanov and Tervaniemi underscore the beneficial influence of musical aptitude on the acquisition linguistic skills as for example in acquiring a second language. In their extensive review of the literature, Besson et al. Shahin article reviews neurophysiological evidence supporting an influence of musical training on speech perception at the sensory level, and the question is discussed whether such transfer could facilitate speech perception in individuals with hearing loss.
This review also explains the basic neurophysiological measures used in the neurophysiological studies of speech and music perception.
Schon and Francois present a review in which they focus on a series of electrophysiological studies that investigated speech segmentation and the extraction of linguistic versus musical information. They demonstrated that musical expertise facilitates the learning of both linguistic and musical structures.
A further point is that electrophysiological measures are often more sensitive for identifying music-related differences than behavioral measures. Taken together, this special issue provides a comprehensive summary of the current knowledge on the tight relationship between music and language functions. Thus, musical training may aid in the prevention, rehabilitation, and remediation of a wide range of language, listening, and learning impairments.
On the other hand, this body of evidence might shed new light on how the human brain uses shared network capabilities to generate and control different functions.
Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness.
Transfer of training between music and speech: Cerebral dominance in musicians and nonmusicians. The effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers.
Does Music Training Enhance Literacy Skills? A Meta-Analysis
Implicit memory in music and language. Native experience with a tone language enhances pitch discrimination and the timing of neural responses to pitch change.
Effects of practice and experience on the arcuate fasciculus: The influence of task-irrelevant music on language processing: