# Relationship between force and voltage

### Work, Voltage, and Power

The difference in voltage measured when moving from point A to point B is equal a voltage is generated, it is sometimes called an "electromotive force" or emf. Electric forces hold together the atoms and molecules in your eyes which allow you to read this Electric potential energy, electric potential, and voltage. The proposed smart cutting tool shows a linear relationship between the applied force and the voltage output, as shown in Figure 5; it also gives a low.

## Work and Voltage: Constant Electric Field

Well, the electrical potential energy difference is the amount of work, as we've learned in the previous two videos, we need to apply to this particle to take it from here to here. So how much work do we have to apply? We have to apply a force that directly-- that exactly-- we assume that maybe this is already moving with a constant velocity, or maybe we have to start with a slightly higher force just to get it moving, but we have to apply a force that's exactly opposite the force provided by Coulomb's Law, the electrostatic force.

And so what is that force we're going to have to apply? Well, we actually have to know what the electric field is, which I have not told you yet. I just realized that, as you can tell. So let's say all of these electric field lines are 3 newtons per coulomb.

So at any point, what is the force being exerted from this field onto this particle? Well, the electrostatic force on this particle is equal to the electric field times the charge, which is equal to-- I just defined the electric field as being 3 newtons per coulomb times 2 coulombs.

It equals 6 newtons. So at any point, the electric field is pushing this way 6 newtons, so in order to push the particle this way, I have to completely offset that, and actually, I have to get it moving initially, and I'll keep saying that. I just want to hit that point home.

### Voltage - Wikipedia

So I have to apply a force of 6 newtons in the leftward direction and I have to apply it for 2 meters to get the point here. So the total work is equal to 6 newtons times 2 meters, which is equal to 12 newton-meters or 12 joules. So we could say that the electrical potential energy-- and energy is always joules.

The electrical potential energy difference between this point and this point is 12 joules. Or another way to say it is-- and which one has a higher potential? Well, this one does, right? Because at this point, we're closer to the thing that's trying to repel it, so if we were to just let go, it would start accelerating in this direction, and a lot of that energy would be converted to kinetic energy by the time we get to this point, right?

So we could also say that the electric potential energy at this point right here is 12 joules higher than the electric potential energy at this point.

Now that's potential energy. What is electric potential? Well, electric potential tells us essentially how much work is necessary per unit of charge, right?

Electric potential energy was just how much total work is needed to move it from here to here. Electric potential says, per unit charge, how much work does it take to move any charge per unit charge from here to here? Well, in our example we just did, the total work to move it from here to here was 12 joules. A common use of the term "voltage" is in describing the voltage dropped across an electrical device such as a resistor. The voltage drop across the device can be understood as the difference between measurements at each terminal of the device with respect to a common reference point or ground.

The voltage drop is the difference between the two readings. Two points in an electric circuit that are connected by an ideal conductor without resistance and not within a changing magnetic field have a voltage of zero.

Any two points with the same potential may be connected by a conductor and no current will flow between them. The various voltages in a circuit can be computed using Kirchhoff's circuit laws.

When talking about alternating current AC there is a difference between instantaneous voltage and average voltage. Instantaneous voltages can be added for direct current DC and AC, but average voltages can be meaningfully added only when they apply to signals that all have the same frequency and phase. Measuring instruments[ edit ] Multimeter set to measure voltage Instruments for measuring voltages include the voltmeterthe potentiometerand the oscilloscope.

The voltmeter works by measuring the current through a fixed resistor, which, according to Ohm's Lawis proportional to the voltage across the resistor. The potentiometer works by balancing the unknown voltage against a known voltage in a bridge circuit. It takes a specific amount of work to lift your DR to the bench. It doesn't matter whether you jerk it upwards in a fraction of a second or take 20 minutes to lift it over the same path.

It is the same amount of work. When the opposing force is measured in newtons and when the distance traveled against the opposing force is measured in meters, then the work, measured in joules, is the force times the distance: It turns out that a kilogram is a unit of mass. The force that we think of when we try to lift that parallel push-pull boat anchor is the mass times the acceleration of gravity, which happens to be 9. When we multiply the number of kilograms by 9.

Problem The output transformer for your watt push-pull amp weighs 6. When holding it in your hands, what is the force of gravity pulling it downward?

### Work Done by Electric field

The force of gravity in newtons is then 3kg 9. The top of your bench is 1. How much work is required to pick up the transformer and place it on the bench? What if the transformer is sitting on the floor in the next room, which is 20 meters away?

Solution We determined in the previous problem that the force of gravity on a 6. The amount of work in joules is then 29N 1. It therefore takes the same amount of work, 35 joules. Voltage Opposite charges attract.

If we move a negative electron towards another electron we perform work because we are moving against an opposing force.