Keywords: environmental psychology, architecture, psychology approaches, relation between behavior based on the human psyche and the physical. Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the interplay between Closely related fields include architectural psychology, socio -architecture, behavioral Environmental psychology is a direct study of the relationship between an environment and how that environment affects its inhabitants. of environmental design body of knowledge and can help architecture students to understand the relationship between theory discussions and.
Basically, Barker preferred fieldwork and direct observation rather than controlled experiments. Some of the minute-by-minute observations of Kansan children from morning to night, jotted down by young and maternal graduate students, may be the most intimate and poignant documents in social science.
Barker spent his career expanding on what he called ecological psychology, identifying these behavior settings, and publishing accounts such as One Boy's Day and Midwest and Its Children Environmental psychologists examine how one or more parameters produce an effect while other measures are controlled.
It is impossible to manipulate real-world settings in a laboratory. On a civic scale, efforts towards improving pedestrian landscapes have paid off, to some extent, from the involvement of figures like Jane Jacobs and Copenhagen 's Jan Gehl. One prime figure here is the late writer and researcher William H. His still-refreshing and perceptive "City", based on his accumulated observations of skilled Manhattan pedestrians, provides steps and patterns of use in urban plazas.
The role and impact of architecture on human behavior is debated within the architectural profession. Environmental psychology has conquered the whole architectural genre which is concerned with retail stores and any other commercial venues that have the power to manipulate the mood and behavior of customers e.
From Philip Kotler 's landmark paper on Atmospherics and Alan Hirsch 's "Effects of Ambient Odors on Slot-Machine Usage in a Las Vegas Casino", through the creation and management of the Gruen transferretail relies heavily on psychology, original research, focus groups, and direct observation.
One of William Whyte's students, Paco Underhillmakes a living as a "shopping anthropologist".
Environmental psychology - Wikipedia
Most of this advanced research remains a trade secret and proprietary. Organizations[ edit ] Project for Public Spaces PPS is a nonprofit organization that works to improve public spaces, particularly parks, civic centers, public markets, downtowns, and campuses. The staff of PPS is made up of individuals trained in environmental design, architecture, urban planning, urban geography, urban design, environmental psychology, landscape architecture, arts administration and information management.
- Environmental psychology: Building with feeling
The organization has collaborated with many major institutions to improve the appearance and functionality of public spaces throughout the United States.
This initiative implemented the transformation of excess sidewalk space in the Meatpacking District of Manhattan into public space. CHE has five subgroups that specialize in aiding specific populations: Being an interdisciplinary field is difficult because it lacks a solid definition and purpose.
It is hard for the field to fit into organizational structures. Proshanksy was one of the founders of environmental psychology and was quoted as saying "As I look at the field of environmental psychology today, I am concerned about its future. It has not, since its emergence in the early s grown to the point where it can match the fields of social, personality, learning or cognitive psychology.
To be sure, it has increased in membership, in the number of journals devoted to it, and even in the amount of professional organizational support it enjoys, but not enough so that one could look at any major university and find it to be a field of specialization in a department of psychology, or, more importantly, in an interdisciplinary center or institute". With environmental psychology being such a diverse field with many different approaches, students have a variety of programs to choose from.
Arizona State University offers a master's in Environmental Resources, which takes more of a planning approach to the field.
Environmental psychology: Building with feeling - AIA
The Environmental Psychology Ph. D program at the CUNY Graduate Center takes a multidisciplinary approach to examining and changing "the serious problems associated with the urban environment with a view towards affecting public policy" using social science theory and research methods.
As discussed in detail on the program website, "recent research has addressed the experiences of recently housed homeless people, the privatization of public space, socio-spatial conflicts, children's safety in the public environment, relocation, community based approaches to housing, the design of specialized environments such as museums, zoos, gardens and hospitals, the changing relationships between home, family and work, the environmental experiences of gay men and lesbians, and access to parks and other urban 'green spaces'.
The sample of the first study consisted in sub- Starting from the tradition of studies of envi- jects parents and 55 caregivers; 70 males ronmental psychology, highlighting the need and females; from 22 to 60 years old. Participants were contacted in the exam- the effects of different children health environ- ined areas and asked to fill in a paper and pencil ments. In particular, the main aim was to com- questionnaire. In order to measure the perceived pare psychological effects of different pediatric affective qualities of the hospital, the Scale of hospitals: A se- ries of ANOVA were run with the scores of affec- tive quality dimensions as dependent variables and the degree of humanization, the typology of setting and the typology of users as independent variables1.
Results and conclusions Results showed that the three hospital low vs. Mean scores of the 8 dimensions of positive 3: Mean scores of the 8 dimensions of positive ties. Thus, experiencing an architecturally highly and negative affective qualities range for the humanized hospital increases positive affective different degrees of humanization second study: Our research results clearly confirm the system- atic relationship between hospital architectural humanization and the perception of affective qualities of hospital setting by various users categories not only patients, but also medical staffand show how with the increase of hos- pital architectural humanization, the positive af- fective qualities increase and the negative ones decrease.
Setting up quantitative measures for indicators of hospital humanization A different research line concerns the develop- Figure 4: Mean scores of the 8 dimensions of positive ment and the psychometric validation of instru- and negative affective qualities range for the ments which are adequate for measuring indica- different degrees of humanization second study: These instruments are expected to be quite use- Environmental Psychology and Architecture for Health Care Design by Mirilia Bonnes, Marino Bonaiuto, Ferdinando Fornara, Elena Bilotta ful both for research aims and for practical ap- The sample was composed by 75 users of low- plications in hospital design activities, such as in humanized hospital units, 56 users of medium- new designs, transformations and renovations.
Females were and males 99, from perceived quality of hospital settings. The main hypothesis of this set of studies, is simi- lar to the previous ones, that is: The difference is that, in this case, the psychological responses under analysis con- cern the cognitive-evaluative level whereas in the previous case the affective level was examined.
Context, sample, instrument and data analysis The research contexts are represented by three orthopaedic units of three hospitals in Rome. One in-pa- tient area and one ambulatory waiting area were 4. Results and conclusions taken into account for each unit.
In particular, the external quality of places. Furthermore, it is worth noting ers i. In a healthcare environment, this could mean accelerating patient recovery times. Right now, environmental psychologists are most likely to be called in to advise architects on very specific project types, typically in healthcare. Environmental psychologists might be retained on staff at a large design firm, or serve as consultants on a per-project basis at smaller ones.
Meadowlark Hills, a retirement community in Manhattan, Kan. Individual doors designate individual entries into separate households, each door providing a physical manifestation of the act of entry into the home. But it's still uncertain how directly knowledge from environmental psychology can be translated into architecture.
So, hypothetically, they're able to advise an architect about how an increased ratio of oxygen to carbon dioxide in a classroom can increase student attentiveness, or how one-way circulation in an apartment unit can help an autistic person move through the day more comfortably, without repetitive rounds of trial and error. Environmental psychologist and interior designer Migette Kaup, who consulted on a nursing home renovation of Meadowlark Hills, a retirement community in Manhattan, Kan.
When we are attempting to shift social meanings and create new experiences, such as making a nursing home actually feel residential, this reinforcement can be central to achieving the stated programmatic goals.