Relationship between chlorophyll a and carotenoids structure


relationship between chlorophyll a and carotenoids structure

Fulltext - Growth and Total Carotenoid, Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b of Recently, epidemiological studies have indicated an association between high in the photosystems, as structural components of light harvesting complexes, as well. Chlorophylls and Carotenoids. Chlorophylls. Two types of chlorophyll are found in plants and the green algae. chlorophyll a and; chlorophyll b. The difference in their structures is shown in the figure (red disks). In the chloroplast, both types are . This action spectrum is similar to the absorption spectrum of protochlorophyll. for chlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis have been found to almost coincide, An electron microscope study of two flagellates, chloroplast structure and variation.

All plants, algae, and cyanobacteria which photosynthesize contain chlorophyll "a".

Photosynthetic Pigments

A second kind of chlorophyll is chlorophyll "b", which occurs only in "green algae" and in the plants. A third form of chlorophyll which is common is not surprisingly called chlorophyll "c", and is found only in the photosynthetic members of the Chromista as well as the dinoflagellates.

The differences between the chlorophylls of these major groups was one of the first clues that they were not as closely related as previously thought.

relationship between chlorophyll a and carotenoids structure

Carotenoids are usually red, orange, or yellow pigments, and include the familiar compound carotene, which gives carrots their color. These compounds are composed of two small six-carbon rings connected by a "chain" of carbon atoms. As a result, they do not dissolve in water, and must be attached to membranes within the cell. Carotenoids cannot transfer sunlight energy directly to the photosynthetic pathway, but must pass their absorbed energy to chlorophyll.

For this reason, they are called accessory pigments. One very visible accessory pigment is fucoxanthin the brown pigment which colors kelps and other brown algae as well as the diatoms. Phycobilins are water-soluble pigments, and are therefore found in the cytoplasm, or in the stroma of the chloroplast. They occur only in Cyanobacteria and Rhodophyta.

Carotenoids are chromophores that are usually red, orange or yellow in color. The most well-known carotenoid is probably carotene, which gives carrots their orange color.


Carotenoids have two main functions: For their primary function, carotenoids absorb light energy from photons. They are not able to transfer this energy directly into the photosynthetic pathway in the reaction center. Rather, they transfer the excitation energy directly to chlorophyll molecules, which then transfer the energy to reaction centers and into the photosynthetic pathway.

Carotenoids are thus known as accessory pigments, and chlorophyll and carotenoids together make up the light-harvesting antenna within cells. Perhaps the most important function of carotenoids is protecting chlorophyll and the surrounding cell from light damage.

To separate extract and meshed filter paper, filtration was done again using 47 mm Whatman filter paper.

Light and photosynthetic pigments

The supernatant was taken and measured in spectrophotometer for carotenoid concentration. The concentration of total carotenoid was calculated using following equation: Significant increase in carotenoid content was determined by One Sample t-test.

relationship between chlorophyll a and carotenoids structure

From this table, it can be observed that day 4 shows the highest growth rate with 1. Table 2 shows three valuable data that related to growth of Isochrysis sp. Growth rate trend of Isochrysis sp. Table 3 shows that there is no significance was observed at the p value of 0. Pigments in Isochrysis sp. Growth trends of Isochrysis sp.

Kruskal-Wallis H test between day of culture and cell count Table 4: Table 6 indicates significant increase in carotenoid content in Isochrysis sp. The temperature at which cultures are maintained should ideally be as close as possible to the temperature at which the organisms were collected.

The objective of preliminary culture for Isochrysis sp. Under laboratory cultured conditions, Isochrysis sp.

Photosynthesis - Pigments

Subsequently, cells grew actively from day 3 until day 9, whereas specific growth rate for Isochrysis sp. During this time, cell is doubling and the number of new microalgae appearing per day is proportional to the present population. On day 10 until day 13, the cells were entered stationary phase. At this phase, the growth rate slows as a result of nutrient depletion and accumulation of toxic products.

In this phase, the microalgae begin to exhaust the resources that are available to them.

  • Photosynthetic Pigments
  • Chlorophylls and Carotenoids
  • What Is the Relationship between Chlorophyll and Carotenoids?

In day 14 until day 15, it can be observed that the cells undergone dead phase where the microalgae was run out of nutrients and die off.

The influence of day during culture was tested using Kruskal Wallis H test which shows that there is no significance was observed at the p-value of 0.