Overall statistical link between alcohol consumption and violence: address the relationship between alcohol and intimate partner  and sexual violence . the consumption of alcohol. o Alcohol use can be a significant factor in family violence. The Relationship between Alcohol and Violence. “My friend and I had a. friends, colleagues and strangers. There is a strong relationship between alcohol and domestic abuse, violence and sexual assault. Whilst alcohol should not be.
Also, spouses being abused may in turn start abusing alcohol alongside their partners. Oftentimes the abused spouse feels there will be safety in joining. This can cause an alcohol dependency to develop in both parties, which spells disaster for an already abusive relationship.
And how to stop it… Preventing and ultimately stopping domestic violence will take further education and families breaking the cycle of it.
The same goes for alcohol abuse. However, as researched by the Tennessee Association of Alcohol, Drug, and other Addiction, already violent men are three times more likely to abuse alcohol or other drugs.
As discussed, alcohol abuse puts a financial strain on a family, as well as changes the behavior of the abuser. If a spouse attempts to stop the abusive other from consuming alcohol, this often triggers violence. Oftentimes the abuser will blame the alcohol for violent outbursts. There is no medical proof that alcohol causes abuse. If this were the case, every drunkard would be battering his or her partner.
However, the blame on the alcohol is a form of guilt, which when bottled up turns to stress, and ultimately leads to more abuse. This vicious cycle needs to end. The current protocol is designed to study the association between alcohol consumption and patterns of domestic violence among women. Study 1 aims to 1 estimate the rates of harmful alcohol consumption and domestic violence within the couple and that directed toward children among adult women; 2 assess the association between the sociodemographic and mental health factors with regard to the harmful consumption of alcoholic beverages; and 3 assess the association between the sociodemographic and physical and mental health factors as well as between alcohol consumption and the occurrence of domestic violence within the couple and that directed toward children.
Nested within Study 1, Study 2 aims to evaluate the effectiveness of BIs on women with harmful alcohol consumption living in a community household setting in reducing their alcohol consumption and patterns of domestic violence within couples and toward children. Methods Study design Study 1 will employ a cross-sectional observational design to investigate the patterns of alcohol consumption and domestic violence using a household survey of women. Study 2 will be a randomized clinical trial RCT nested within Study 1 i.
Setting The current study will be conducted in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil; this city has approximately half a million inhabitants. This categorization will be used to investigate two populations with different income profiles. Sampling To calculate the sample size needed for this cross-sectional study, the data from a previous study which estimated the prevalence of harmful alcohol consumption among women in Juiz de Fora as approximately 9. Thus, the initial sample size was estimated as respondents in each neighborhood.
To calculate the clinical trial sample size, the following considerations will be made: Thus, the calculated sample size for each group i. To make the second study possible, considering the prevalence of women with risky alcohol consumption in the two neighborhoods surveyed around the estimated above ie, 9.
To recruit the women who belong to the target population, a two-stage cluster sampling method will be adopted. The streets belonging to each neighborhood will be considered as primary sampling units PSUsand households will be considered as secondary sampling units SSUs. To select PSUs, a simple random sampling method without replacement will be adopted, whereas the SSUs will be selected using systematic sampling. In each selected household, the field researchers will invites all women who met the inclusion criteria to participate in the study.
Inclusion criteria Female residents in the two neighborhoods who are aged 18—60 years, literate, and without obvious cognitive impairments will comprise the target sample.
Domestic violence behaviors will be investigated among women who have children of aged up to 18, husbands or partners, or both residing in the same household.
Domestic Violence: Explore the Issue
Measurements Participant sociodemographic characteristics Information concerning ethnicity, age, education level, religion, occupation, marital status, and number of children will be obtained. Among women who are married or cohabitating, information regarding the duration of their relationship will be obtained along with the sociodemographic characteristics of their partners e.
The final score reflects the following alcohol consumption levels or patterns: Consumption of other substances Information regarding the consumption of tobacco, marijuana, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and cocaine over the three months preceding the interview will be obtained.
Depression The population-based screening scale for depression from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies i. This screening instrument seeks to identify depressive symptoms within adult population-based studies [ 51 ]. Consisting of 20 items, its total score ranges from 0 to 60 points, with the higher scores indicating a greater amount of depressive symptoms.
The cutoff of 16 points is often used to classify individuals as having possible depression. The CES-D has been previously validated for use in Brazil and shows satisfactory levels of reliability [ 5253 ]. The CTS2 was designed to assess violence within couples, and it provides data on the respondent and her partner. This survey consists of 78 items, and each item is displayed in a set of two questions.
The first question of each set refers to a possible behavior of the respondent, whereas the second refers to the same action but experienced by the partner. This instrument consists of 5 subscales that address the occurrence of negotiation, psychological aggression, physical violence, consequences of violence affecting the health of the respondent and her partner i.
The CTS2 shows an internal consistency between 0.
Alcohol and Domestic Violence
The CTSPC was designed based on the refinement of the previous instrument, and it addresses the parent—child relationship.
This instrument is composed of questions regarding the occurrence of certain behaviors directed at children. Its 22 items are divided into three levels: The CTSPC had previously been cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil; furthermore, prior work found that its internal consistency ranged from 0.
According to Straus [ 59 ] the author of the CTS2 and CTSPCthese instruments investigate the occurrence of behaviors that, unlike emotions, attitudes, and beliefs, are less susceptible to distortions with regard to the interpretation of facts.
Furthermore, research indicates that violent acts are typically reciprocal, i. The information regarding alcohol consumption provided by the respondent and her partner during episodes of violence will also be incorporated by adapting the violence scales.
Alcohol's link to domestic violence is in focus – now what?
After each CTS2 and CTSPC item, the interviewer will ask whether one of the involved individuals was under the influence of alcohol when the event occurred.
Except for the CES-D, which refers to the events of the previous week, all of the instruments will be adapted to consider a time period of three months. Household survey A researcher will approach the participants at their homes; all of the instruments will be administered there. The researchers will be properly trained women who will initially approach the participants to invite them to volunteer for the survey, delivering a document that describes the study and its objectives.
Furthermore, the importance of research ethics will be emphasized. The researchers will gain familiarity with the instruments by administering them to a colleague. Training will be provided on the application of a BI via videos and role-playing techniques.
To locate the women living in the randomly selected households, at least three visits will be made to each household.
When a resident is not found at her supposed address, the researchers will seek information from the neighbors to identify the existence of any women who meet the eligibility criteria for the study and the best days and times to approach them. Random clinical trial The data collection for Study 2 will be conducted concomitantly using the women detected in Study 1. Women with AUDIT scores equal to or above 8 will be considered as hazardous alcohol users and randomly allocated into one of two groups: The participants will be allocated using a list of random numbers.
Three months after the BI, all instruments except for the sociodemographic questionnaire will be re-administered to both groups. Because of ethical reasons, a BI session will also be offered to the CG after the second evaluation, at the end of the study. Independent interviewers will perform the baseline and the follow-up interview. All participants will receive information about the study, and their participation will be voluntary. Each participant will be required to sign an informed consent document.
At the end of the interviews, all participants will receive an informational leaflet regarding the use of alcoholic beverages, as well as a guide concerning health services and psychosocial assistance in cases of violence and alcohol dependence.
After the follow-up assessment is performed three months after the screening, the BI will be applied to participants in the CG.
Statistical analyses Given the characteristics of the adopted sampling design, the data will be processed and analyzed using the statistical software STATA version Initially, exploratory bivariate analyses will be conducted to assess the associations between the variables of interest and the possible risk factors.
A logistic regression model will be used to examine the patterns of alcohol consumption with the response variable and the sociodemographic and health characteristics as explanatory variables.