Embassy of the Federal Republic of Nigeria - NIGERIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE
Nigeria - Government and society: Under the constitution, executive economic power, controlling the markets in such Yoruba cities as Lagos and Ibadan. groups, the agitation of self – government and the granting of independence in also the Of The Three Major Ethnic Groups In Nigeria Hausa, Yoruba And Igbo They discussed the conduct of wars; the kingdom's relationship with the. practice, the government generally enforced these protections. its overall policy to promote human rights and improve interreligious relations. NIGERIA. 2 group predominates. While most Yorubas practice either Christianity or Islam, . restaurants catering to foreign residents and international business travelers served.
Awo believed that resources of the state must be used for the benefit of the greater number of people. Chief Obafemi Awolowo understood the values of education and this informed his decision to offer free education to every Yoruba child. This undoubtedly helped in building and maintaining the Yoruba tradition of intellectualism that had been in existence over centuries.
Yoruba passion for acquisition of knowledge through formal education is our hallmark and the outstanding feature which distinguishes us among other ethnic Nationalities. He believed in, and stoutly advocated a federal structure where each of the constituent units will creatively use its God given resources to provide the best opportunities for its people.
The result of his visionary leadership in the quality of infrastructure, education, health and rural integration in the South West cannot be wished away even by his most vicious critics.
The result of the elections saw the Unity Party of Nigeria coming a distant second to the Northern dominated National Party of Nigeria which picked its running mate from the South; thus paving the way for Alhaji Shehu Shagari to emerge as the First Executive President of a Presidential system of government in Nigeria. By the elections of when Chief Awolowo had a change of strategy in choosing Mallam Muhammad Kura from Bauchi state as his running mate, the NPN had become almost a behemoth and the political atmosphere had become so compromised that no credible elections were possible in the circumstance.
Not even the suppressed anger of the Yoruba elements in the NPN who had felt betrayed by the renunciation of an alleged pact by the Northern leadership to run for only one term and support the West in could help the cause of the Yoruba aspiration represented by Chief Awolowo.
By the time the second Republic was terminated by the Military junta headed by Gen. Muhammadu Buhari in December,the aspiration of the Yoruba Nation as a major stakeholder in the Nigerian Federation remained largely unfulfilled. It is the consensus of analysts that the coup against our then nascent democracy halted the political advancement of the Nation and inflicted a deadly blow on our political consciousness which we never recovered from for another sixteen years.
The politics of Third Republic and the Abiola factor The period often regarded as the third Republic in Nigeria was characterized by the Politics of the years The most interesting thing about the politics of the Third Republic however was that it led to the forced marriage of certain political elements who had no prior antecedent of electoral collaborations.
While this had some obvious advantages in pursuit of building National consensus, it also had its down side in the eruption of virtually irreconcilable differences and serious intra-party conflicts.
In all these, the Yoruba Nation played a key role in the strengthening of the political parties and driving the process of restoring Nigeria to a democratic Nation. Most importantly, the period marked a turning point in the exclusive politics of the South West and eventually led to the emergence of a Yoruba man, the late Chief MKO Abiola as the flag bearer of the SDP and eventual winner of the June 12 Presidential election which was annulled by the Ibrahim Babangida administration.
How did Abiola succeed in breaking the jinx? The answer is simple: He recognized the inevitability of a strong synergy between the Political stakeholders in all the political blocks of Nigeria.
Across northern Nigeria, Sabongari was transformed from migrant enclaves to merchant cities. Culturally, the significance of Sabongari became even more profound because of the unrestricted nature of inter-ethnic social interaction. There was disparity in terms of school fees paid by indigenes and immigrants. This has led to unequal access to power and resources and to violent contestations and conflicts. A report of the cotton market at Funtua clearly indicated that out of the ten buying agents at the cotton market, three were Yoruba, while another three were of West African origin.
We want to be recognised as Katsina State indigenes. If we return to Ogbomoso, we would be ignored. We wish that the Katsina State government would accept us fully. A high rate of mutual co-existence was displayed in August to prevent a reprisai attack of the Hausa-Yoruba conflict in Sagamu.
According to him, 50 Weekly Trust, August 27,p. Considering how united we have become with the Yorubas in Funtua, it will be completely irrational that we should want to isolate and kill them. This is the work of rouges, not ethnicity. That will be useless. I have children here who are married to Hausa people of Katsina.
Indeed, from the middle of s the incessant ethno-religious conflicts in northern Nigeria towns has led to the unprecedented relocation of Yoruba families from the conflict zones to their hometowns or other northern cities. Many Yoruba 52 Babalola, A. Justifying the fears of the Yoruba ethnic group about the possibilities of retaliatory attacks, a coalition of thirteen northern youth under the aegis of G disseminated statements which emphasized that all Yoruba immigrants must leave Kaduna within tweoty-four hours or pay risk their lives.
In a statement entitled: Following the recent organized killing of Fulani cattle-herdsmen in Lagos and the subsequent events in Kwara State, we hereby give all Yorubas resident in Kaduna, twenty-four hours to either pack out or pay for it. We have followed, with keen interest, the calculated plan to destroy our people with the support of powerful people in the society who have been aiding the OPC members with weapons of mass destruction.
For example, the quick intervention of the council of Ulamas and several leading Muslim clerics including Sheikh Yusuf Sambo Rigachikun of Sultan Bello Mosque actually helped substantially towards laying the G threat to rest.
Since the resurgence of Ethno-religious conflicts in Jos inYoruba immigrants have been living with fear of insecurity and attack on their lives and properties. Many were displaced and forced to relocate to their hometowns. The uncertainty and state of insecurity has led to the formation of pan-Yoruba and multi-ethnic organizations involving Yoruba in Northern Nigeria around the issues of security and peaceful co-existence.
G Oguntoyinbo and Alhaji Y. Makanjuola who became President General and Secretary respectively coordinated the establishment of the association. The association further encouraged the formation of Pan-Yoruba groups in Northern States. In the Executive Council were: Dada of Bauchi; Chief S. Adesina of Zamfara State. The council, which comprises of the 18 Northern States excluding Kwara began its maiden quarterly meeting in October in Kano. Indeed, the state of insecurity and tension and ethnic conflicts made the Yoruba leaders in diaspora formed a Pan Yoruba Association for the protection of Yoruba migrants through allegiance with host communities and the security agencies.
The Central Agenda of the association is to foster unity, stability and strengthen the cordial relationship among the Yoruba on one hand and between Yoruba and other Nigerians on the other hand.
The association has the following objectives: The Forum is an association of Nigerians who are living, thriving and happy to be living among ethnic groups other than their own regions other than theirs.
Intermarriage is routine in Shagamu. We have houses and fixed assets that cannot be transferred. We have the clout we have in the place we live, so that if you Sarki go back to Kano, you are an ordinary man, no more Sarki. We can do something to keep Nigeria 56 66At inception, NIFOR membership was drawn from the Hausa Fulani communities in the Southwest and the Yoruba Community in the 17 Northern States, but membership have been widened to incorporate all Nigerians living in states other than their own.
Conclusion 67The existence of the Yoruba in northern Nigeria has implications for national development. Yoruba lived with other ethnic groups and exhibited the capacity for ethnic tolerance and religious pluralism in northern Nigeria. The migrants pursued and. The entrepreneurial drives of the Yoruba merchants enabled them to recruit labour from their kinship network for the expansion of their commercial base but such strategy often prevents capital accumulation on a large scale.
Kinship network of extended family was a major strategy in the provision of employment, training and capital that ensured the preponderance of Yoruba commerce in northern Nigeria. Some integrated with the host communities. Integration involved both the Yoruba immigrants and the host communities achieving a degree of convergence.
The integration of second-generation Yoruba migrants was largely conditioned by how their parents identities. These has been exhibited in costume and the spoken pattens of the Yoruba in diaspora who felt at ease communicating in Hausa, Nupe and Kanuri or mixed the languages together with Yoruba.
The central question is not whether the second generation assimilated into Hausa society, but into what segment of that society it assimilated.NIGERIA'S MOVE TO EASE BUSINESS
Many of the descendants of early migrants have integrated into the Hausa society and became members of the political, intellectual, military and commercial elites. Others used their integration into Hausa to benefit from scholarships; employment and promotion opportunities but despised their Yoruba ancestry. Among the last group, however, were those who contested elections and won as representatives of the communities where they lived, particularly, at the local government levels.
The Edi festival celebrates this feat amongst her Yoruba descendants.
They are embodied in Ifa Divination, and are known as the tripartite Book of Enlightenment in Yorubaland and in its diaspora. Yoruba cultural thought is a witness of two epochs. The first epoch is a history of cosmogony and cosmology. This is also an epoch-making history in the oral culture during which time Oduduwa was the king, the Bringer of Light, pioneer of Yoruba folk philosophy, and a prominent diviner.
He pondered the visible and invisible worlds, reminiscing about cosmogony, cosmology, and the mythological creatures in the visible and invisible worlds. His time favored the artist-philosophers who produced magnificent naturalistic artworks of civilization during the pre-dynastic period in Yorubaland. The second epoch is the epoch of metaphysical discourse, and the birth of modern artist-philosophy. This commenced in the 19th century in terms of the academic prowess of Bishop Samuel Ajayi Crowther — Although religion is often first in Yoruba culture, nonetheless, it is the philosophy - the thought of man - that actually leads spiritual consciousness ori to the creation and the practice of religion.
Thus, it is believed that thought philosophy is an antecedent to religion. Values such as respect, peaceful co-existence, loyalty and freedom of speech are both upheld and highly valued in Yoruba culture.
Nigeria - Government and society | rhein-main-verzeichnis.info
Societies which are considered secret societies often strictly guard and encourage the observance of moral values. Today, the academic and nonacademic communities are becoming more interested in Yoruba culture. More research is being carried out on Yoruba cultural thought as more books are being written on the subject.
Islam and Christianity[ edit ] The Yoruba are traditionally a very religious people, and are today pluralistic in their religious convictions. Many Yorubas can be found in different types of Christian denominations. Many others are Muslims, as well as practitioners of the traditional Yoruba religion. Yoruba religious practices such as the Eyo and Osun-Osogbo festivals are witnessing a resurgence in popularity in contemporary Yorubaland. They are largely seen by the adherents of the modern faiths, especially the Christians and Muslimsas cultural rather than religious events.
They participate in them as a means to celebrate their people's history, and boost tourist industries in their local economies. Anna Hinderer church and mission house at Ibadans The Yorubas were one of the first groups in West Africa to be introduced to Christianity on a large scale.
- The Yorubas: Our politics, yesterday and today
- Yoruba people
- How exactly are Yoruba people suffering in this government? – Muyiwa Adetiba
As time progressed, other Europeans - such as the French, the British, and the Germans, followed suit. British and French people were the most successful in their quest for colonies These Europeans actually split Yorubaland, with the larger part being in British Nigeria, and the minor parts in French Dahomey, now Beninand German Togoland.
Home governments encouraged religious organizations to come, and to Christianize the so-called "animist" Africans. Roman Catholics known to the Yorubas as Ijo Aguda, so named after returning former Yoruba slaves from Latin America, who were mostly Catholic, and were also known as the Agudas, Saros or Amaros started the race, followed by Protestants, whose prominent member - Church Mission Society CMS based in England made the most significant in-roads into the hinterland regions for evangelism and became the largest of the Christian missions.
Henry TownsendC. Baptist missionaries - Bowen and Clarke - concentrated on the northern Yoruba axis - Ogbomoso and environs. With their success, other religious groups - the Salvation Army and the Evangelists Commission of West Africa - became popular among the Igbominaand other non-denominational Christian groups joined.
The increased tempo of Christianity led to the appointment of Saros and indigenes as missionaries.