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In the coworking spaces, the coworkers respondents will be selected. Everyone who is present in a coworking space is seen as a user of a coworking space and is covered by the research unit. Data will be collected through the use of survey questions and an attribute based stated choice method. The data will be analyzed by several descriptive analysis methods, a multinomial logit model, a latent class logit model, chi-square tests and independent samples T-tests.
The data for the user characteristics factor will be collected through survey questions. Questions will be asked about geographic, demographic and psychographic characteristics to identify the user. Behavioral characteristics will not be included in the questionnaire because it is mainly focused on actual customer behavior towards a product, such as brand loyalty, readiness to buy and degree of loyalty than on the user.
The data for the user preferences of coworking space characteristics factor will be collected through the use of a stated preference method. The respondents must make discrete choices concerning the different coworking spaces A, B and C, in order to decide which characteristics they prefer.
To analyze the user characteristics of coworkers, multiple descriptive analysis methods will be used. To define the user preferences for coworking spaces characteristics, a multinomial logit model will be estimated. Different groups of coworkers will be identified based on preferred coworking space characteristics, by estimating a latent class logit model. In this model, a number of classes will be estimated based on matching user preferences. The classes will be characterized by using chi-square tests and independent samples T-tests, which determines the difference between the estimated user groups classes based on user characteristics.
In the following chapter, a literature review is performed. The subject of coworking dependent factor will initially be addressed, as this will form the framework for the subject of user characteristics independent factor. In the first part of chapter 2, the characteristics of a coworking space will be described and the first sub-question, What are the typical characteristics of coworking spaces? Chapter 2 will describe which user groups can be identified in coworking spaces and how to analyze their user characteristics.
This chapter will also provide an answer to the second subquestion, Which types of users can be identified in coworking spaces and with which characteristics can they be described? In chapter 3, the research design will be clarified. The methodology of the data collection and data analysis will be explained in further detail. The operationalization of the variables, as well as the reliability and validity of this study, will also be presented in chapter 3. The data are described in chapter 4, where the independent variables are analyzed.
In this chapter, the third sub-question What are the user characteristics of coworkers in general? The data analysis forms the central topic in chapter 5; the data are here analyzed using multiple methods. The sub-questions What are the user preferences for coworking space characteristics? Finally, in chapter 6, the conclusions of this study will be drawn. The research question Can different user groups be identified based on their preferences for coworking space characteristics?
Outline of the chapters and corresponding research questions 15 17 18 Chapter 2: Literature Review The research questions addressed by literature review are as follows: To create a clear view of what coworking spaces are, the market of multi-tenant offices will first be introduced in section 2.
What is the definition of a multi-tenant office? How did they arise? And which types can be distinguished? The basic principles of coworking will be discussed, such as, what is coworking?
How did it emerge? How can it be defined? The typical characteristics of coworking spaces are presented in section 2. However, according to multiple surveys, the number of user groups is larger. Each user group contains a great variety of users with different sets of user characteristics. In this chapter, also a literature review of user characteristics will be carried out.
An introduction in market segmentation and user characteristics is given in section 2. The different user groups found in coworking spaces are identified in section 2.
Finally, in section 2. The emergence of multi-tenant offices was initiated in the late s, in response to an increasing demand for office space with secretarial and telephony services Peltier, In the s, many office buildings were built in response to easily available funding.
Real estate was a popular investment product by then. Landlords offered lucrative deals to providers of multi-tenant offices for example, HQ Business Centers and OfficePLUS, Regus originated in the early s in the form of rent-free periods or free interior design.
Landlords offered incentives to entice multi-tenant office providers to locate themselves in their buildings, multi-tenant offices were seen as a profitable business. The market multiplied as a result Peltier, In the mids, few centers were built due to a turnaround in the economy. The oversupply of multi-tenant offices decreased Peltier, At the end of the s, the rental market for multi-tenant offices collapsed due to the saving and loan crisis and the real estate crisis, as tenants cancelled or did not renew their lease contracts Peltier, A series of merges between providers ensured that a number of major providers arose in the market of multi-tenant offices Peltier, Providers and owners attempted to differentiate themselves, as a result of a larger competitive market, by offering other services and facilities to attract a specific group of tenants.
For example, by offering a service package in prime locations that attracted larger organizations. Providers entered a specific market. According to Ketting the two archetypal multi-tenant offices have historically been the serviced office and the incubator. Both of these types emerged from different philosophies. The purpose of an incubator is to help startup companies to mature. The incubator find its origins due to the forced resignations of employees of industrial enterprises which started on their own Ketting, The purpose of a serviced office is to offer flexibility in services, space and lease duration.
Serviced office spaces originated in taking care of tenants by offering multiple services Somsen, ; Ketting, The rise of multi-tenant offices was a result of companies becoming aware of the rapidly evolving, changing and volatile markets Somsen, Each organization sooner or later needs a workspace and prefers it flexible manner. Furthermore, municipalities have increased their focus on facilitating low-cost office space in multitenant offices. By outsourcing real estate management, organizations became flexible and able to anticipate the volatile markets Somsen, Corporate real estate was considered as a non-core business by most of the organizations.
Organizations had to focus on the fields in which distinctive value could be achieved, and outsource the ones in which they do not have a 17 19 competitive advantage Peltier, ; Laterveer, ; McAllistar, Furthermore, outsourcing leads to cost savings reducing capital investments and operational costs and spreads risk. Providers saw opportunities here and started to bundle space and services McAllistar, In this way, the multi-tenant office type of serviced office space arose.
A long rental period provided a steady flow of income for the landlord, a lease period of longer than 25 years was the standard in the s and s. Long-term contracts provided a weak relationship between tenants and landlords, because there were limited incentives to improve the offered quality and services. The landlord treated the building purely as a financial product. Providers of multi-tenant offices, in contrast to single-tenant offices, ensured the quality and services of the management of the real estate.
A tailored product, adjusted to the demands of the tenant, ensured a good relationship between landlord and tenant Ketting, ; McAllistar, In a multi-tenant office, the occupier took no responsibility for the property and took advantages of a fully-serviced office Gibson and Lizieri, The benefit for the landlord of a multi-tenant office, compared to a single-tenant office, is that when a tenant fails to pay their rent, e.
In a multi-tenant office, this reduction in income of lease can be buffered by the other remaining tenants. In a single-tenant office, the sole tenant disappears, which is very detrimental to the landlord.
Each study assigned a definition to the concept of multi-tenant offices and identified the different types of multi-tenant offices, each in a different manner. The different types of multi-tenant offices are as follows: Regular business center; Serviced office; Incubator; and Coworking space.
Calder and Courtney were the first to study the market of multi-tenant offices, at that time a relatively new property industry. Compared to the other types, the regular business center has no overarching theme.
This makes the regular business center the plainest type of multi-tenant office, with the focus on providing office space. Flexible accommodation is desirable in a highly volatile market. Flexibility is the most important asset of serviced office space, since organizations must be more agile in their production of goods and services. Providers develop a real estate product that responds to this demand for flexibility McAllistar, According to Somsenflexibility in serviced office space is seen in three main aspects.
First, the flexibility in provided services. There are also additional services, which are based on the pay what you use principle. For example, printing or mail services, for which extra costs are charged. The second aspect of flexibility is the flexibility of space. Organizations rent space depending on their demand. In times when the organization must deliver fewer services or products, the amount of office space can be scaled down. The final aspect is the duration of the lease.
This is based on the plug and play principle, which refers to the simple occupation of office space. Businesses can rent space on a daily, weekly, monthly or yearly basis. Trends in the market have changed lease periods Ketting, Long term contracts are not in line with the flexibility needs of organizations. The users of serviced offices are small and medium-sized organizations and teams who use this 18 20 space as an extension of their core offices McAllistar, The group of users is larger, according to Laterveer and Price and Spicer Self-employed workers, startups, virtual workers, staff overflow and new product development teams also use these spaces.
Serviced office space is often the core office for smaller and starting organizations. Another common term for an incubator is a brewing place. The two main benefits for the city are new jobs and the additional revenue generated by the activities. Moreover, incubators stimulate knowledge exchange in the region. Business incubators help startups by offering marketing assistance, access to capital, networking activities, advisory boards and much more. Incubators attempt to fill the gap that startups are unable to because of a lack of network, knowledge and capital.
The matured startup also leave the incubator the multi-tenant office. The target group of incubators are the kind of startups that have an innovative idea but are missing a concrete business plan to bring the product to market. Startups can join an incubator program that will ensure that the product can be brought to market Hartog, According to Morisetthe coworking office emerged for workers who could not find an appropriate workplace. Users became tired of the distraction and loneliness of working at home or at the local cafe Fuzi et al.
The most common user groups in coworking spaces are selfemployed workers, entrepreneurs and freelancers. Coworking spaces are energetic and creative offices where people can interact, share, build and co-create Fuzi, Coworking emerged in in San Francisco, and during the aftermath of the financial crisis ofthe amount of coworking space increased worldwide Spinuzzi, ; Merkel, The ongoing rise of coworking spaces reflects the popularity of this type of multi-tenant office and is therefore an interesting research topic Sykes, In the next section, the concept of coworking and the coworking space will be explained in further detail.
Fuzi, Clifton and Loudon went a step further by stating that we are moving away from a knowledge economy and are moving towards a creative economy. In the creative economy, innovation, technology and creative ideas are important values. Creativity is increasingly seen as a new Holy Grail in the economic world Fuzi et al. Coworking spaces are seen as workspaces that encourage and stimulate collaboration and serendipitous encounters with coworkers, boosting creativity and innovation Fuzi et al.
Sykes mentioned that coworking signposts a shifting attitude towards work focused on collaboration and fun. This paradigm shift regarding work has been caused by the redefinition of work. The new model of work centers on the context of collaborative work and a shared economy Gandini, ; Merkel, Throughout this study, the term coworker will be used to refer to the user of coworking spaces. There are two ways to write coworker, with or without a hyphen.
Coworker is often misspelled in the academic literature and in various online blogs. Coworker spelled without the hyphen refers to the worker who works individually in a shared community-driven workplace. Co-worker spelled with a hyphen refers to the worker with whom one works on a particular project Gandini, It is also important that coworking and coworking spaces not be confused.
Therefore, these two concepts will now be explained. It is difficult to define coworking using spatial and organizational characteristics Parinno, According to Deskmagthe online magazine about coworking, one definition of coworking sounds illusive. Coworking is a clustering of multiple words. According to Merkelthe co in coworking refers to an aggregation of the words communication, community and collaboration. In order to create a clear view of what this entails, it is important to note the variety of definitions used by the following authors when discussing coworking: Working alone together ; Janet Merkelpp.
A new form of urban social infrastructure enabling contacts and collaborations between people, ideas and connecting places and working alongside one another pp. Coworking is a combination of working independently and interacting with others. Users of coworking spaces can decide where, when, how often and how long they work. The definition provided by Deskmag is the most accurate definition of the four.
Deskmag made several long-term studies regarding the concept of coworking and analyzed the previous literature to establish this definition. Deskmag is by far the most popular website on this topic, and most of the academic studies on coworking refer to it. In an article from Deskmag written by Nina Pohlerit was argued that every co worker has certain ideas about the concept of a coworking space. The imagination of this concept is a little vague and different for each co worker.
For that reason, there is a discrepancy between the multiple definitions of a coworking space: Bruno Morisetpp.
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Coworking spaces CS are regarded as "serendipity accelerators," designed to host creative people and entrepreneurs who endeavor to break isolation and to find a convivial environment that favors meetings and collaboration. Alessandro Gandinipp.
Coworking spaces are shared workplaces utilized by different sorts of knowledge professionals, mostly freelancers, working in various degrees of specialization in the vast domain of the knowledge industry. A coworking space is a workspace for the community, where people can sit down and collaborate with each other.
It is a low-cost workspace and easily accessible, containing shared knowledge from different business backgrounds that can contribute to the own business. Coworking spaces are shared workspaces that are used by various independent individuals as their place of business. The definition provided by Spinuzzi is the most accurate definition, because important characteristics of coworking spaces are mentioned, including community, collaboration and accessibility.
These characteristics are reflected in the five core-values drafted by Kwiatkowski and Buczynskiwhich will be presented in the next section. Brad Neuberg, the initiator of the coworking movement, started a coworking space in in San Francisco.
This was meant to be a physical space where independent and mobile workers would come together The coworking wiki, Brad Neuberg started this space because he wanted to work by himself, but in the middle of a community.
His thoughts were that he wanted to work in a place like Google, but not for Google. A coworking space must be a replication of a cool company.
According to Neuberg, this involves having a shared context. Neuberg said the following thing about this shred context: I go to bars and I see lots of people standing around but no one talks to each other. When I go to a house party and lots of people are standing around, everyone talks to each other, because there is a shared context.
How to get that shared group identity without being in the same company? This quote describes the genesis of a coworking space. During the aftermath of the financial crisis ofthe number of coworking spaces quickly increased Merkel, According to Morisetthe growth of coworking spaces may have been fueled by the bursting of the property bubble in North America and Europe, resulting in an economic downturn.
In Spain, where the bursting of the property bubble was almost the worst in the world, now has the second highest number of coworking spaces in Europe.
This increase was a reaction against the anti-social environment of other types of multi-tenant offices Merkel, Selfemployed workers and freelancers do not have a connection with the other tenants small and large firms. Coworking spaces responded to the needs of these user groups. Deskmag presents an annual survey regarding coworking, in which a broad perspective is examined.
The ongoing worldwide rise of coworking spaces is reflected in the current study. At the beginning ofjust after the financial crisis, coworking spaces numbered approximately 3, Inthis number had increased to almost 7, The forecast published in by Deskmag stated that the number of coworking spaces worldwide will be approximately 37, by the end of The number of coworkers will also increase fromin to 2, in Deskmag, ; Deskmag, 20 22 2.
These core-values reflect the coworking philosophy and are considered to be the cradle of the coworking phenomenon. According to Kwiatkowski and Buczynski, these values are purposefully vague and open to individual interpretation.
In this way, coworking space providers and coworking hosts can attract the sort of coworkers who are dedicated to similar values, who then build a solid foundation for the coworking community.
The five core-values of coworking are as follows: Openness is a less outspoken core-value as collaboration, but has a lot in common. Rohlf stated that the more members are open to each, the more opportunities to give and to benefit from each other. Coworking spaces provide the possibility for collaboration with coworkers. According to Spinuzzicollaboration is a common result of the interaction that naturally occurs.
Collaboration involves proposals, evaluations, questions and engaged actions Appel-Meulenbroek, According to Hillmana coworking space can be typified as a high contact environment, where serendipitous meetings often happen. Spontaneous interaction with partners from different business activities is a meaningful principle. Physical proximity will not automatically lead to a meeting, collaboration or partnership.
Therefore, coworking hosts are called upon to create encounters, interaction, collaboration and mutual trust Merkel, ; Merkel, ; Moriset, The task of the coworking host is to develop a space that stimulates interaction between coworkers.
Throughout the interviews with coworking hosts, performed by Merkelit could be seen that these hosts were willing to create a homey atmosphere and a diversity of work options. Coworkers need encouragement to come to work every day. Merkel also studied the role of the coworking host, usually the owners or the operators, in their collaboration, interaction, creativity and productivity amongst coworkers. The host s activities of curatorial practice can be summarized as assembling and arranging people, spaces, objectscreating and signifying new meanings collaborations, community, sustainability, openness and accessibilityreframing work differentlycaring enabling community and exhibiting the work space and its communityall in order to create new work-related and social experiences in the city Merkel,pp.
According to Merkel, there are two types of coworking hosts; the service provider and the visionary. The service provider focuses on the work aspect regarding the working environment, the visionary focuses on the co aspects of coworking, as mentioned in the previous section.
According to Fuzithe coworking host plays an important role in creating different modes of engagement that stimulate interaction, networking and collaboration. Collaboration in the form of knowledge exchange between coworkers can be stimulated by an organizational platform where coworkers can meet other coworkers and ask particular questions Parinno, According to Parinnothe physical co-presence of coworkers stimulates knowledge exchange. However, as mentioned above, a physical presence alone is insufficient.
Proximity in knowledge exchange is an important factor in coworking Moriset, Appel-Meulenbroek argued that the layout of the building has a relationship with knowledge exchange. Important factors that ensure knowledge sharing are visibility, placement within the room, centrality and proximity in the building Appel-Meulenbroek, The visibility mechanism, which concerns coworkers on the same floor, visible workplaces and compactness of the workplace, is able to increase collaboration.
An open layout stimulates interaction between coworkers. The more open the space, the fewer boundaries for the community to collaborate Hillman, ; Rohlf, Interaction is not always initiated from a professional point of view; the social aspects are just as important. Deijl stated that having other entrepreneurs around appears to be more motivating. Support and professional feedback on business activities enhance the learning process of the individual entrepreneur and influences the human capital as well as the business possibilities.
Support is available in the form of a mentorship, where a more knowledgeable person helps a less experienced worker. Working with coworkers in the same community leads to collaboration. For instance, a marketer requires help with the front-end development of a new website. A freelance journalist captures this conversation and approaches the same developer for a new website. According to Fergusonthere exists a pay it forward vibe present in coworking communities; it is a repeated loop of giving something and receiving something else in reverse.
This happens in a natural context.
It is sustainable as coworkers are not dependent on resources 21 23 outside the coworking space. The infrastructure, network and facilities are present within the coworking space. It is a type of self-sustaining environment Ferguson, In the case study presented by Deijlempirical research was carried out on the effect of economic growth.
The study showed that the productivity of the coworkers increased, since they worked in a coworking space. This could be due to the structure and external control this work space provides Deijl,pp. Coworking led to knowledge diffusion between coworkers, stimulated innovation and had a significant positive effect on the income of the coworker. Community and sustainability According to Hillmanthe core-value sustainability can be combined with the core-value community.
In first attempt, sustainability is associated with the words green and ecological which reflect the classic thoughts about sustainability. A shared office is ecologically sustainable because resources are shared. Coworkers all use the electricity network, the furniture, coffee machine and various services such as reception and a mail service. The costs of renting space and additional services are relatively low, which is sustainable from an ecological and organizational perspective. But there is a lot more to sustainability.
In a coworking space it is all about a sustain community. According to FergusonSustainability in a coworking community is about supporting, nourishing, about buoying up our fellow coworkers.
Coworkers benefit from the presence of other coworkers. They become part of a larger community of like-mined individuals with whom they can share ideas and do business Spinuzzi,and form contacts in different activities, different fields and disciplines of work. In contrast, coworkers must master every aspect of running a business, which is difficult. Coworkers must master accountancy, contracts, investment and so on. The resources inside the coworking system can be used.
Spinuzzi gave an account of two types of relationships: The most important theme in coworking is community. A coworking space offers a community consisting of different kinds of workers in different kinds of knowledge fields.
Spinuzzi named coworking spaces community workspaces. The community has the distinctive character compared to other types of multi-tenant offices. For instance, incubators do not focus on the informal process of working together and do not stimulate collaboration, in contrast to coworking spaces Leforstier, The space is a supportive value in the process of coworking, but is certainly not the focus.
The community offers emotional and practical support for those who are cut off from these activities due to isolation in their home office or cafe. The people in the coworking space make the coworking space, the people build the community together.
Hillman argued that the community WE is bigger than the person him or herself ME. The main value of the community is that it is open to everyone and ieasily accessible. It concerns sharing experiences, learning new things, experimenting in new areas and celebrating each other's successes. Coworkers value structure in their lives, as too much autonomy cripples the productivity Moriset, The community helps coworkers create structures and discipline.
This is confirmed in the study of Deijl Accessibility Hillman noted that a coworking space is quite remarkable. Each person present in the room is there because they chose to be there. Perhaps the workers of a corporate office do not like their work environment and prefer to be somewhere else.
Coworkers choose for themselves where and when to work, and are surrounded by coworkers with similar thoughts. A coworker determines whether the community concerned is in line with their personal needs Capdevila, In other words, it is accessible to everyone.
Sykes and Deijl both mentioned that the attractiveness of coworking spaces is due to the reflected flexibility and mobility. The plug and play principle is desirable for starting organizations; coworking spaces offer a low barrier to immediately commence working. The rent prices of coworking spaces are often low and the period is flexible; for instance, a day, a week or a month Sykes, A large number of coworking space providers have coworking spaces at multiple locations.
This gives the user the flexibility to choose where to work Merkel, ; Fuzi, ; Spinuzzi,; Deijl, After the Russian Revolution ofSneevliet's radicalism gained enough support amongst both the Indonesian population as well as Dutch soldiers and especially sailors that the Dutch authorities got nervous.
Sneevliet was therefore forced to leave the Dutch East Indies in ISDV was repressed by the Dutch colonial authorities. Comintern functionary Henk Sneevliet top right, on the tribune speaking before the Winter Palace in Petrograd in Trotsky is making the Russian translation.
The preferred characteristics of coworking spaces
Back in the Netherlands, Sneevliet became active in the fledgling Communist movement, becoming a salaried official of the party's National Labor Secretariat NAS and helping to organize a major transportation strike in Lenin was impressed enough by him to send him as a Comintern representative to China, to aid in the formation of Communist Party of China.
Sneevliet lived in China from to and was present at the founding congress of the Communist Party of China in July That same year, while still imprisoned, Sneevliet was elected a member of the Lower House of parliament, a position in which he remained until This declaration was intended as a step towards a new 4th International of revolutionary socialist parties.
Reiss had a train ticket to visit Sneevliet when he Reiss was assassinated in Lausanne, Switzerland, in