2. – Kaitiakitanga – guardianship and conservation – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand
The relationship between the health of the ecosystem and the wellbeing of the people Māori land has deep spiritual significance for Māori. Māori values for land use planning. Image - Adrienne Farr. Māori values are derived from a common or universal Māori belief system. These Māori beliefs are: . Maori Relationship To Land. 1. Maori Relationship to Land; 2. Connection to land The Maori believe all living things are descended.
Language-evolution studies  and mtDNA evidence  suggest that most Pacific populations originated from Taiwanese aborigines around 5, years ago suggesting prior migration from the Asian or Chinese mainland. Subsequently it was found that 96 per cent of Polynesian mtDNA has an Asian origin, as do one-third of Polynesian Y chromosomes, with the remaining two-thirds being from New Guinea and nearby islands.
Other species, also now extinct, included a swan, a goose and the giant Haast's eaglewhich preyed upon the moa. Marine mammals—seals in particular—thronged the coasts, with evidence of coastal colonies much further north than those which remain today [update].
Further south, at the mouth of the Shag River Waihemoevidence suggests that at least 6, moa were slaughtered by humans over a relatively short period of time. It was common for people to establish small temporary camps far inland for seasonal hunting. Settlements ranged in size from 40 people e. Radiocarbon dating shows the site was occupied from about to Due to tectonic forces, some of the Wairau Bar site is now underwater.
Work on the Wairau Bar skeletons in showed that life expectancy was very short, the oldest skeleton being 39 and most people dying in their 20s. Most of the adults showed signs of dietary or infection stress. Anemia and arthritis were common. Infections such as tuberculosis TB may have been present, as the symptoms were present in several skeletons.
Moa were also an important source of meat. According to Professor Allan Cooper, the people slaughtered to extinction most of the various lost species within years.Māori land owners outraged over barred access to land
The low number of births may have been due to the very low average life expectancy of 31—32 years. This suggests that the people ate a balanced diet and enjoyed a supportive community that had the resources to support severely injured family members. The cooling of the climate, confirmed by a detailed tree-ring study near Hokitikashows a significant, sudden and long-lasting cooler period from This coincided with a series of massive earthquakes in the South Island Alpine fault, a major earthquake in in the Wellington area,  tsunamis that destroyed many coastal settlements, and the extinction of the moa and other food species.
Māori people - Wikipedia
This period is characterised by finely made pounamu greenstone weapons and ornaments, elaborately carved canoes—a tradition that was later extended to and continued in elaborately carved meeting houses called wharenui  —and a fierce warrior culture.
A notable feature of Moriori culture was an emphasis on pacifism.
The battle was fought between about 7, warriors from a Taranaki -led force and a much smaller Waikato force under the leadership of Te Rauangaanga.
European settlement of New Zealand occurred in relatively recent historical times. Between andthere were 65 sealing voyages and whaling voyages to New Zealand, mainly from Britain and Australia. European settlement of New Zealand increased steadily. This led to a period of bloody intertribal warfare known as the Musket Warswhich resulted in the decimation of several tribes and the driving of others from their traditional territory.
The smashing of normal society by the four decades of wars and the driving of peaceful tribes from their productive turangawaewae, such as the Moriori in the Chatham Islands by invading forces from North Taranaki, had a catastrophic effect on these conquered tribes.
A huge influx of European settlers in the s increased contact among many of the indigenous people with the newcomers. It "decimated" populations in the early 19th century and "spread with extraordinary virulence throughout the North Island and even to the South With increasing Christian missionary activity and growing European settlement in the s, and with growing lawlessness in New Zealand, the British Crown acceded to repeated requests from missionaries and some chiefs rangatira to intervene.
Tamati Waka Nene, a pro-government chief, was angry that the government had not taken active steps to stop gunrunners selling weapons to rebels in Hokianga. In addition, France appeared to be showing interest in acquiring New Zealand to add to its stake in Polynesia. Both iwi have attributed their success to property investment.
Crown apologies are received differently by various iwi. The conciliator, the media and education The Office of the Race Relations Conciliator was formed under the Race Relations Act and releases reports that serve as educational resources for the public.
The office has dealt with a number of complaints that have generated national publicity.
Real progress toward indigenous reconciliation requires fairness and equality. Reuters But the most influential educational platform for indigenous reconciliation in New Zealand is the media, which have experienced something of a transformation since the s.
Other public education platforms involve treaty educators, the education system and public education initiatives. Treaty educators, who are invited to present to communities or organisations on a largely voluntary basis, run workshops and produce multiple resources.
It does all this despite the treaty not being a compulsory educational component or coursealthough the national curriculum: In effect, public education initiatives have tended to fluctuate.
And efforts over time have coincided with nationwide events and political policies, such as the sesquicentenary celebrations of the signing of the Waitangi Treaty, or the release of the Fiscal Envelope the government policy to settle historical grievances. An approach like this can result in recurring accusations of unfairness because one party clearly has more power when equality is needed for fair and enduring settlements.