The Sun and the Solar System orbit around the center of our Galaxy, the Although the Sun is a relatively small star in the universe, it is huge in relation to our solar Since many space missions have observed and studied the Sun, its. Studies of the relationship of the Sun to its galaxy, the Milky Way, have revealed that the Sun is located near the outer edge of the galactic disk, about 27, Answer to Studies of the relationship of the Sun to our galaxy the Milky Way-have revealed that the Sun is located near the outer.
Currently, more than four million tonnes of matter is converted into energy within the core, producing neutrinos and solar radiation.
The Sun - Universe Today
At this rate, the Sun has converted times the mass of our Earth into energy about 0. The core is therefore shrinking, allowing the outer layers of the Sun to move closer to the center and experience a stronger gravitational force. This stronger force increases the pressure on the core, which in turn is making the core denser. At the end of its main sequence phase, the Sun will not go supernova since it does not have sufficient mass.
Instead, once the hydrogen in the core is exhausted in 5. But much will happen in this amount of time.
The Sun will then shrink to around 10 times its current size and 50 times its luminosity, with a temperature a little lower than today. For the next million years, it will continue to burn helium in its core until it is exhausted. By this point, it will be in its Asymptotic-Giant-Branch AGB phase, where it will expand again much faster this time and become more luminous.
Over the course of the next 20 million years, the Sun will then become unstable and begin losing mass through a series of thermal pulses. Planets in the Outer Solar System are likely to change dramatically, as more energy is absorbed from the Sun, causing their water ices to sublimate — perhaps forming dense atmosphere and surface oceans. The post AGB evolution is even faster, as the ejected mass becomes ionized to form a planetary nebula and the exposed core reaches 30, K.
The final, naked core temperature will be overK, after which the remnant will cool towards a white dwarf.
The planetary nebula will disperse in about 10, years, but the white dwarf will survive for trillions of years before fading to black. This places it at a distance of 7. The Sun is contained within the Local Bubblea cavity in the interstellar medium that contains rarefied hot gas.
The Sun, and thus the Solar System, is found in what scientists call the galactic habitable zonea zone which contains several characteristics supportive to life.
These include the right mix of elements, an orbit that keeps it away from the dangerous spiral arms, and being at a sufficient distance from the galactic center so that it is not disrupted by its gravitational forces or too much radiation.
Of the 50 nearest stellar systems within 17 light-years from Earth the closest being the red dwarf Proxima Centauri at approximately 4. In addition, the Sun oscillates up and down relative to the galactic plane approximately 2.
It takes the Solar System about — million years to complete one orbit through the Milky Way a galactic yearso it is thought to have completed 20—25 orbits during the lifetime of the Sun. The Sun has been an object of veneration throughout prehistory and ancient human history.
The earliest known examples of Sun worship are found in Proto-Indo-European mythology, where the sun is depicted as traversing the sky in a chariot aka. In Germanic mythology, the solar chariot is depicted as Sol; in Vedic and subsequently Hindu cultures as Surya; and in Norse mythology as Solvognen.
The gilded side of the Trundholm, the Norse sun chariot. To the Babylonians and Assyrians, Shamas or Samas was the equivalent, and similar gods were worshiped in the Akkadian and Hebrew pantheons — and well as throughout the Arabian peninsula — under different names. To the ancient Egyptians, the sun was associated with Ra, the god who ruled the sky, the Earth and the underworld.
The Sun itself was named Aten, which was either the body or the eye of Ra. From the 25th century BCE onward, worship of Ra became widespread across Egypt, with many depictions of him being carried across the sky in a solar vessel accompanied by the lesser gods.
In the case of New World civilizations, the Incas, Mayans and Aztecs all believed that human sacrifices were necessary to appease the Sun god and maintain the cycle of life.
To the Aztecs, Huitzilopochtli — the god of war, the sun, human sacrifice and the patron of Tenochtitlan — was responsible for all their victories and defeats in battle, and could only be appeased through the offering of blood. However, unlike their ancient forebears, the Greeks viewed the Sun as one of the seven planets, since it revolved once a year along the ecliptic through the zodiac.
Several famous temples and monuments were constructed in ancient times with worship of the Sun or solar phenomena in mind. For example, stone megaliths that marked the summer or winter solstice have been observed in Egypt, Malta, England StonehengeIreland, and at the ancient city of Chichen Itza in southern Mexico. Over time, ancient astronomers began to develop a scientific understanding of the Sun, based on ongoing observations of its movements.
An illustration of the Ptolemaic geocentric system by Portuguese cosmographer and cartographer Bartolomeu Velho, It was also during the 3rd century BCE that Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos would propose the idea that the Sun was at the center of the universe and the planets revolved it. This view would be adopted later by Seleucus of Seleucia ca. Ibn Rushd, the 12th century Andalusian astronomer, also provided a description of sunspots in the 12th century.
Observations of sunspots were recorded earlier during the Han Dynasty BCE — CE by Chinese astronomers, who maintained records of these observations for centuries. The development of the telescope in the early 17th century also allowed for detailed observations of the Sun and planets. InGiovanni Cassini and Jean Richer were able to determine the distance to Mars, and were thereby able to calculate the distance to the Sun.
InWilliam Herschel built on this by discovering infrared radiation using a series of thermometers and a prism. By noting temperature changes beyond the red part of the solar spectrum, he helped usher in the study of electromagnetism by determining that certain forms energy are invisible.
Astronomy for Kids: The Sun
A major contributor to this field was William Thomson aka. Lord Kelvin, — who suggested that the Sun is a gradually cooling liquid body that is radiating an internal store of heat.
InBritish astronomer and physicist Sir Arthur Eddington proposed that the pressures and temperatures at the core of the Sun could produce nuclear fusion whereby hydrogen atoms merge into helium nuclei, resulting in the production of energy from the net change in mass. This would later be confirmed by numerous studies conducted by physicists, which would also lead to the conclusion that the fusion of hydrogen is responsible for the formation of all known elements in the universe.
With the beginning of the space age in the midth century, the opportunity to observe the Sun with robotic space probes became possible for the first time. These probes orbited the Sun at a distance similar to that of Earth, and made the first detailed measurements of the solar wind and the solar magnetic field.
These included the first observations of coronal mass ejections and of coronal holesnow known to be intimately associated with solar wind. Unfortunately, an electrical failure caused the probe to go into standby until it could be retrieved and repaired by the Space Shuttle Challenger in Untilwhen an annular eclipse caused it to lose its lock on the Sun, it observed an entire solar cycle and determined that the corona was much more active in regions away from peak activity than previously thought.
Originally intended to serve a two-year mission, a mission extension through was approved inand a follow-on mission was launched in — the Solar Dynamics Observatory SDO. All these satellites observed the Sun from the plane of the ecliptic, and so have only observed its equatorial regions in detail.
Inthe Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory STEREO mission was launched, which consisted of two identical spacecraft being launched into orbits that caused them to alternately pull further ahead of and fall gradually behind Earth. This enables stereoscopic imaging of the Sun and solar phenomena, such as coronal mass ejections. Many more solar missions are planned for the coming years and decades.
Its main instrument will be a coronagraph for studying the dynamics of the Solar corona. How do we know about the Sun?
The Sun has been studied by humans, scientists, and astronomers for as long as people have been around.
In the 16th and 17th centuries astronomers like Galileo and Isaac Newton began to study the Sun and learned that planets orbit the Sun due to gravity. In Arthur Eddington explained how the intense pressures at the center of the Sun could produce nuclear fusion and, in turn, great amounts of heat and energy. Since many space missions have observed and studied the Sun, its solar winds, and sun spots to give us more and more information about the Sun and this giant center of the Solar System.
The Sun as seen from the International Space Station. The distance from the Sun to the Earth is used for a standard unit of measurement called the Astronomical Unit au.
The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way. It takes between million and million years for the Sun to complete its orbit through the Milky Way. The Sun is expected to remain stable for the next 5 billion years. The outer atmosphere of the Sun constantly releases a stream of charged particles called the Solar Wind.
Activities Take a ten question quiz about this page.