Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy) - Wikipedia
Samuel, Saul, David and Solomon are a mixed bunch of men, with different personalities, different ambitions and different character traits. When the prophet Samuel was old, he called Israel to Mizpah and presented Saul as the first king over united Israel. Saul and his successor, David, eventually . Samuel was asked by God to anoint Saul and later David as Kings of Israel. . years Solomon as King of Israel through his own actions let slip his relationship.
David then leaves the cave, revealing himself to Saul, and gives a speech that persuades Saul to reconcile. On the second occasion, Saul returns to Ziph with his men. When David hears of this, he slips into Saul's camp by night, and again restrains his men from killing the king; instead he steals Saul's spear and water jug, leaving his own spear thrust into the ground by Saul's side.
The next day, David reveals himself to Saul, showing the jug and spear as proof that he could have slain him. David then persuades Saul to reconcile with him; the two swear never to harm each other.
After this they never see each other again. Battle of Gilboa and the death of King Saul[ edit ] The Battle of Gilboa, by Jean Fouquetthe protagonists depicted anachronistically with 15th Century armour The Philistines make war again, assembling at Shunemand Saul leads his army to face them at Mount Gilboa.
Before the battle he goes to consult a medium or witch at Endor. The medium, unaware of his identity, reminds him that the king has made witchcraft a capital offencebut he assures her that Saul will not harm her.
She conjures the spirit of the prophet Samuelwho before his death had prophesied that he would lose the kingdom. Samuel tells him that God has fully rejected him, will no longer hear his prayers, has given the kingdom to David and that the next day he will lose both the battle and his life.
Saul collapses in fear, and the medium restores him with food in anticipation of the next day's battle. In 1 Samuel, and in a parallel account in 1 Chronicles 10, as the defeated Israelites flee, Saul asks his armour bearer to kill him, but he refuses, and so Saul falls upon his own sword. David has the Amalekite put to death for accusing himself of killing the anointed king. The victorious Philistines recover Saul's body as well as those of his three sons who also died in the battle, decapitated them and displayed them on the wall of Beth-shan.
They display Saul's armour in the temple of Ashtaroth an Ascalonian temple of the Canaanites. But at night the inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead retrieve the bodies for cremation and burial 1 Samuel Later on, David takes the bones of Saul and of his son Jonathan and buries them in Zela, in the tomb of his father 2 Samuel Saul died for his unfaithfulness which he had committed against the Lord, because he did not keep the word of the Lord, and also because he consulted a medium for guidance.
The birth-narrative of the prophet Samuel is found at 1 Samuel 1— It describes how Samuel's mother Hannah requests a son from Yahwehand dedicates the child to God at the shrine of Shiloh.
The passage makes extensive play with the root-elements of Saul's name, and ends with the phrase hu sa'ul le-Yahweh, "he is dedicated to Yahweh. The majority explanation for the discrepancy is that the narrative originally described the birth of Saul, and was given to Samuel in order to enhance the position of David and Samuel at the former king's expense.
Before, Saul is presented in positive terms, but afterward his mode of ecstatic prophecy is suddenly described as fits of madness, his errors and disobedience to Samuel's instructions are stressed and he becomes a paranoiac. This may indicate that the David story is inserted from a source loyal to the House of David; David's lament over Saul in 2 Samuel 1 then serves an apologetic purpose, clearing David of the blame for Saul's death.
Samuel's words later clarify that God's repentance is not like human regret or reconsideration: The Strength of Israel will not lie nor relent. For He is not a man, that He should relent.
Understood in which sense, it can have no place in God. But it is often ascribed to him in the Scriptures when he alters his method of dealing with persons, and treats them as if he did indeed repent of the kindness he had shown them.
Various authors have attempted to harmonize the two narratives regarding Saul's death. Josephus writes that Saul's attempted suicide was stalled because he was not able to run the sword through himself, and that he therefore asked the Amalekite to finish it. On this view, 1 Samuel records what actually happened, while 2 Samuel records what the Amalekite claims happened.
One is based on the reverse logic that punishment is a proof of guilt, and therefore seeks to rob Saul of any halo which might surround him; typically this view is similar to the republican source. The passage referring to Saul as a choice young man, and goodly 1 Samuel 9: According to this view, Saul is only a weak branch Gen.
The second view of Saul makes him appear in the most favourable light as man, as hero, and as king. This view is similar to that of the monarchical source. In this view it was on account of his modesty that he did not reveal the fact that he had been anointed king 1 Samuel Nor was there any one more pious than he M. He was marvelously handsome; and the maidens who told him concerning Samuel cf 1 Samuel 9: In war he was able to march miles without rest.
When he received the command to smite Amalek 1 Samuel For one found slain the Torah requires a sin offering [Deuteronomy If the old have sinned, why should the young suffer; and if men have been guilty, why should the cattle be destroyed? It was this mildness that cost him his crown. And while Saul was merciful to his enemies, he was strict with his own people; when he found out that Ahimelecha kohen, had assisted David with finding food, Saul, in retaliation, killed the rest of the 85 kohanim of the family of Ahimelech and the rest of his hometown, Nov.
Yoma 22b ; Num. But if his mercy toward a foe was a sin, it was his only one; and it was his misfortune that it was reckoned against him, while David, although he had committed much iniquity, was so favored that it was not remembered to his injury Yoma 22b; M. In some respects Saul was superior to David, e. Saul expended his own substance for the war, and although he knew that he and his sons would fall in battle, he nevertheless went forward, while David heeded the wish of his soldiers not to go to war in person 2 Samuel According to the Rabbis, Saul ate his food with due regard for the rules of ceremonial purity prescribed for the sacrifice Yalq.
As a reward for this, God himself gave Saul a sword on the day of battle, since no other sword suitable for him was found ibid Saul's attitude toward David finds its excuse in the fact that his courtiers were all tale-bearers, and slandered David to him Deut. Saul is the chosen one of God Ber. For who is able to govern this great people of yours?
I will give you a wise and discerning heart, so that there will never have been anyone like you, nor will there ever be. Moreover, I will give you what you have not asked for -- both riches and honour -- so that in your lifetime you will have no equal among kings. And if you walk in my ways and obey my statutes and commands as David your father did, I will give you a long life.
We will now consider each of these gifts in turn. Long Life God promised Solomon long life, but with a condition attached.
As we will see, he followed other gods. He was young when he became king, and he reigned 40 years.
David and Solomon
We could guess that he died in his sixties. The Old Testament puts a lot of emphasis on length of life. We even find it mentioned in the fifth commandment: Health and long life are among the greatest blessings anyone may have, if we consider only this life.
The New Testament scarcely mentions long life once, but eternal life, or its real meaning spiritual life, is mentioned many times. Natural health and long life in the Old Covenant are pictures of spiritual life and health in the new. In the natural realm, life and health are the foundations of all other blessings. You cannot enjoy food, drink, possessions, entertainments or anything else after you die, or if your body is wracked with pain.
So it is also in the spiritual realm. Unless you have spiritual life and health you cannot hope for further spiritual blessings. Wisdom Why did Solomon ask God for wisdom?
He had come to the throne as the young son of a great father, and he felt a big responsibility. His older brother Adonijah had already tried to take his throne from him. He deeply wanted to rule the people of God rightly. No doubt he had great respect for the many virtues of his father.
rhein-main-verzeichnis.info: Men of the Bible - Samuel, Saul, David and Solomon
David had faith and great courage in battle and generosity and forgiveness even for his enemies. He was a poet also and a musician. Above all he had a deep love for God. However it appears he lacked wisdom, and probably Solomon had seen this and its consequences.
Two stories will illustrate this difference between father and son. David ignored the standard practice of those times of slaughtering every male member of a rival royal dynasty. Instead he adopted Mephibosheth as his own son, to eat with him at his table for the rest of his life. What grace and mercy to the undeserving! How beautifully we see the loving heart of God for the unlovely manifested in David.
Ziba, the servant of Mephibosheth, joined David in exile, but Mephibosheth remained behind in the palace. Mephibosheth came out to meet them.
All the time he had been faithful to David! I puzzled over this story, and reread all the details and tried to decide which of the two men was telling the truth. Then another thought struck me. David himself could not decide who was telling the truth! He did not have wisdom. The result was a serious injustice.
If Mephibosheth was telling the truth, he was deprived of half his property for no reason, and Ziba was richly rewarded for his lies. If Ziba was telling the truth, then Mephibosheth was guilty of serious treachery and ingratitude to a man who had shown him nothing but undeserved kindness. He did very well only to lose half his property. Added to this David was going back on his promise to Ziba.
Solomon, soon after his meeting with God, faced a far more difficult problem. Two prostitutes gave birth in the same house. One baby was alive and healthy and the other died. Each claimed the living baby as her own, and there were no witnesses. Solomon had wisdom from God. Cut him in two! Solomon, filled with wisdom from God, solved an almost impossible problem. David failed in a much easier situation. However it was only a foretaste of the wisdom that was later to be his.
It was like a flash of inspiration or a gift of the Spirit to meet an immediate need. Later he had wisdom on every subject relevant to his day. According to the record: His wisdom was so great that people came from far and wide to hear it.
At the age of 12 he was wise enough to be able to discuss the law with those who were many years his seniors. At the age of 30 that wisdom had matured to perfection, and he was ready for the work his Father had called him to do.
The church age that is now passing has not been an age of wisdom. Many of the true saints of God have been members of corrupt churches. They have been fed more on fable than on truth. They have battled and prayed and wept like David, and shed their blood for love of their Saviour. Generally, however, they have lacked wisdom. Paul himself had remarkable wisdom from God. He received an understanding of the Hebrew scriptures that, seen against the background of the time, was quite incredible.
Children eat their food in total ignorance of how it has reached the table.
They take it all for granted. So most people read the New Testament blind as to how it came to be there. He spoke of this wisdom in Eph 3: His vision of a church displaying the manifold wisdom of God was delayed in its fulfilment.
The David age of conflict had to come first. The world has certainly moved into an age where knowledge has increased beyond all imagination.
The Lands of Saul, David, and Solomon
In many ways also people are wiser than they were. By comparison the people of God often look - and are - foolish. That is now to end. We have come to the time when, like Solomon, we can ask God for wisdom, and he will give it to us.
Jesus was wise with the wisdom of God. He wants to impart his wisdom to us. What is wisdom and how does Jesus impart it?
Wisdom is Jesus, and he imparts it by imparting himself. Peace Peace was not named among the blessings that God promised Solomon in his dream. However it was the meaning of his name.
David had definitely been a man of war. You are not to build a house for my Name, because you have shed much blood on the earth in my sight. But you will have a son who will be a man of peace and rest, and I will give him rest from all his enemies on every side.
His name will be Solomon, and I will grant Israel peace and quiet during his reign.
Saul - Wikipedia
Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war any more. I believe there will be a day when wars will cease and the nations of the world live at peace with each other.
But more importantly there will be a day when the people of God enter into their sabbath rest and, ceasing from their own works, live and rest in the power of God. I have written separately on this subject under the title Sabbath Rest.
Riches Prosperity and wealth are the natural consequence of wisdom and peace. Saul killed himself in battle 1 Sam He was a good communicator and a fine-looking man 1 Sam The servant also noticed that, 'The Lord is with him'. How would the servant have known this? What characteristics of David's life shone through? How did he live in such a way that this person could discern that God was with him?
Samuel anoints David 1 Sam The story of David and Goliath, you have this sense that David is eager and tenacious. His trust in God is greater than his fear of the giant.
Whatever Saul sent David to do, he did it so successfully, that Saul gave David a high rank in the army 1 Sam He developed a strong bond of mateship with Jonathan 1 Sam David had an opportunity to kill Saul 1 Sam 24but he cuts off a small portion of Saul's robe and becomes, 'conscience-stricken'.
Humility was a key characteristic of David's life. Even with Saul chasing him down wanting to kill him, David still called Saul, King, and continued to call himself a servant 1 Sam Even David questioned Yahweh's plan for him at times - 'One of these days I will be destroyed by the hand of Saul' 1 Sam Though remember God had anointed him a long time ago by Samuel to become King.
The predominant writer of the Psalms. Saul was the people's King and David was God's chosen King.Saul, David, and Solomon
David said to Solomon, 'So be strong, show yourself a man, and observe what the Lord your God requires. Walk in his ways, and keep his decrees and commands, his laws and requirements, as written in the Law of Moses, so that you may prosper in all you do and whereever you go Solomon was known as a man of wisdom 1 Kings 2: Solomon was young, when given the reigns of kingship.
He prayed, 'So give your servant a discerning heart to govern your people and to distinguish between right and wrong' 1 Kings 3: Men would come from all around to hear Solomon's wisdom.