Precipitation - Wikipedia
Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere, atmospheric They also research the relationship between the atmosphere and Earth's climates, oceans, and biological life. . The Azores high is responsible for arid temperatures of the In , Daniel Fahrenheit, a German physicist, developed the mercury. Farms in early civilizations needed to understand weather patterns for their . This was the invention of another German scientist, one Heinrich Wilhelm Brandes. . meteorology as an applied science to determine the relationships between a. air monitoring station near the West German village of surements in the following areas: temperature, relative Additionally, the relationships among the.
As a result, the modern global record of precipitation largely depends on satellite observations. The sensors are almost exclusively passive, recording what they see, similar to a camera, in contrast to active sensors radarlidar that send out a signal and detect its impact on the area being observed. Satellite sensors now in practical use for precipitation fall into two categories.
Thermal infrared IR sensors record a channel around 11 micron wavelength and primarily give information about cloud tops. Due to the typical structure of the atmosphere, cloud-top temperatures are approximately inversely related to cloud-top heights, meaning colder clouds almost always occur at higher altitudes. Further, cloud tops with a lot of small-scale variation are likely to be more vigorous than smooth-topped clouds.
Various mathematical schemes, or algorithms, use these and other properties to estimate precipitation from the IR data.
The frequencies in use range from about 10 gigahertz to a few hundred GHz. Additional sensor channels and products have been demonstrated to provide additional useful information including visible channels, additional IR channels, water vapor channels and atmospheric sounding retrievals.
However, most precipitation data sets in current use do not employ these data sources. IR works best in cases of deep, vigorous convection—such as the tropics—and becomes progressively less useful in areas where stratiform layered precipitation dominates, especially in mid- and high-latitude regions. The more-direct physical connection between hydrometeors and microwave channels gives the microwave estimates greater skill on short time and space scales than is true for IR.
However, microwave sensors fly only on low Earth orbit satellites, and there are few enough of them that the average time between observations exceeds three hours. This several-hour interval is insufficient to adequately document precipitation because of the transient nature of most precipitation systems as well as the inability of a single satellite to appropriately capture the typical daily cycle of precipitation at a given location.
Since the late s, several algorithms have been developed to combine precipitation data from multiple satellites' sensors, seeking to emphasize the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of the individual input data sets. In some cases the long-term homogeneity of the dataset is emphasized, which is the Climate Data Record standard. In other cases, the goal is producing the best instantaneous satellite estimate, which is the High Resolution Precipitation Product approach.
In either case, of course, the less-emphasized goal is also considered desirable. One key result of the multi-satellite studies is that including even a small amount of surface gauge data is very useful for controlling the biases that are endemic to satellite estimates. The difficulties in using gauge data are that 1 their availability is limited, as noted above, and 2 the best analyses of gauge data take two months or more after the observation time to undergo the necessary transmission, assembly, processing and quality control.
Thus, precipitation estimates that include gauge data tend to be produced further after the observation time than the no-gauge estimates. Famous early astronomer Johannes Kepler wrote a treatise on snow crystals; slightly later, Renee Descartes defined snowflake morphology The first barometer follows before 20 - and like modern models it used mercury to register temperature change. The later 17th century saw an explosion in the science. Another astronomer, Edmund Halley after whom Halley's Comet is named, devised the first predictions of regional wind systems by proposing a theory of trade winds, studying the processes that form monsoons From there, the young science stopped being concerned entirely with localized weather conditions and began to look at large-scale processes that inform weather systems.
His calculations, although improved, still form the basis of large-scale wind-based weather patterns today. Other names from the period are Gabriel Fahrenheit and Anders Celsius after whom the two most common temperature scales are named.
The 19th Century Building on the temperature scale, systems came into force to determine wind speed The Beaufort Scale ; it is still used today by all major weather forecasting offices This is considered the first ever climate report and his interests in pressure, temperature, currents, magnetism would form the basis of modern meteorology, but also a whole new atmospheric study that would eventually lead to climate science Shortly afterwards, the first cartographic weather reports weather maps would begin appearing.
This was the invention of another German scientist, one Heinrich Wilhelm Brandes. Today, he is credited as the founder of Synoptic Meteorology, a scale we still use today. When viewing a weather report, the scale of lines that appear on the map denotes air pressure.
This is the Synoptic Scale 24 and it predicts large-scale weather patterns. Another name familiar to meteorologists should be Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis although he was not, by trade, a meteorologist. He worked during the Industrial Revolution and theorized how revolving parts of new machinery could be designed for greater efficiency. An unexpected by-product of this theoretical engineering came in meteorology when his contemporaries realized that his theory applied to weather systems over large areas based on the planet's rotation and wobble during the seasons.
The late 19th century was the beginning of the establishment of most meteorological services following the world's first International Meteorological Conference in By the beginning of the 20th century, most countries in the developed world had a society dedicated to the study of weather patterns and local climate conditions. The UK's Met Office was the first in International organizations sprang up quickly with the International Meteorological Organization beginning in Vienna in This lasted until the s when replaced with the World Meteorological Organization.
Meteorology in the 20th and 21st Centuries and Beyond The 20th century continued the expansion of the science. Changes in technology included the dawn of radio. This was useful for transmitting public weather forecasts and weather warnings for extreme weather events, allowing everyone to benefit.
Later, telemetry would be able to transmit information instantly from various weather stations to the growing number of media outlets. Also, for the first time, mathematical principles began applying to meteorology 26improving prediction in forecasting although the Chaos Theory that would later come to underpin the erratic nature of weather would not come in until the s.
This became necessary for the push towards intensive farming in the developed world so agricultural workers could take the right measures for their work. Some war technologies proved useful too; radar, for example, allowed Royal Air Force pilots to fly at night during bombing raids on the European continent and to detect enemy aircraft, but meteorologists quickly found it had a use in weather patterns Satellite imagery also began its life in the immediate post-war years through to the s.
Today, satellites provide up to the second photographic images of weather systems, allowing for changing prediction based on the sometimes chaotic fluctuations of weather fronts.
What is the relationship among meteorology, weather, and climate?
A growing environmental movement in the late 19th and early 20th century came to a head in the s. We now understand that climate change leads to erratic and extreme weather This was the time researchers began to understand the potential to shift entire ecosystems and lead to long-term ecological change.
Our modern understanding of weather patterns and regional change is based on some of the best tools presently available to us. Digital mapping in the form of Geographic Information Systems GIS and modern radar do not just predict what the weather will be like tomorrow, but allows us to examine weather systems while they happen.
That allows meteorological offices all over the world to offer changing status on erratic weather systems and offer safety advice 1.
In the 21st century with extreme weather arguably exacerbated by climate change, their importance is way beyond what the weather will be like tomorrow. Uses of Meteorology Weather forecasting The most obvious public face of the science of meteorology is in weather forecasting. Every time we turn on the news to understand how our local weather is going to look for today or next few days, we are utilizing one of the most common applications of meteorology.
It applies many scientific methods and tools in attempting to predict, through atmospheric indicators, how the weather conditions will look one hour, one day or one week from now. The further into the future, the more erratic and less predictable the conditions become.
Meteorologists who work in this area collect quantitative data mathematical information and statistics on such information as air pressure, present weather, wind in the different levels of the atmosphere to create forecast models based on recognition of past patterns, mitigation of model bias.
Newtonian physics once determined that systems were stable, but Einstein determined they are erratic, unpredictable to a degree and subject to external influences based on minute changes. Multiple models are used today to increase accuracy and super-fast computational processes can highlight up-to-the-minute changes. We rely on weather warnings - for tornados, hurricanes, flooding, heavy rain and snow etc. Commodity Trading Perhaps one of the most surprising ways in which meteorology is applied is in commodities trading.
Stocks and shares trade is one area of employment for meteorologists, especially when the dealing with commodity crops such as coffee affected by adverse weather conditions and fuel we use more in unusually cold winters These organizations trade based on longer-term weather forecasting and what a crop harvest is going to look like in a certain year.
Thales of Miletus discussed earlier in the article was perhaps the first person to do this when he predicted a bumper crop for olives, bought a press, and made a lot of money in the process. It's an inexact science, because weather conditions that will create a bumper harvest for one crop may prove destructive for another. There are many examples of how meteorology has presented speculators with opportunities to make money.
Even smaller businesses such as clothing retailers and restaurants are utilizing data from meteorological data specialists.
Targeted advertising is set to go out at certain times such as commercials for wet weather clothing during unusually wet weather and sun cream during unusually warm weather, not just based on typical seasonal trends. Aviation Meteorology This division of meteorology deals with military and commercial flying and weather conditions in the upper levels of the atmosphere. Even when the weather is good at ground level, it doesn't mean the same conditions apply 30,ft. Aviation meteorology is the applied science that dictates air traffic - whether a route is safe or dangerous, at what times, and whether flights can be made at all They will disseminate data about head and tail-winds, temperature changes, ice buildup which can damage aircraft performance and variation on the ground, air pressure variation across the world and through the atmosphere, visibility and local conditions advisory systems for pilots.
They can dictate when it's unsafe to take off or unsafe to land and find alternate airports such as the eruption of the Icelandic volcano in that causes havoc across North America and Europe Agricultural Meteorology Few industries and areas of our lives are as dependent on changes in weather conditions as agriculture.
Crops for food and for clothing are necessary to live and for business, providing livelihoods for those who grow crops - not just food, but also commodity crops such as cotton and coffee.
Meteorology determines when farmers should sow, when they should reap, and what steps they will need to take to protect crops from erratic weather. They may need to engage in flood mitigation or effective water management during drought to protect from crop failure.
Throughout the season from sowing to harvest, farmers and agricultural workers must engage in proper crop management and monitoring. This means effective watering or drainage but also includes ensuring the right nutrients remain in the soil for the crop and for the season but is also based their forecast crop yields on weather conditions and how quickly they may respond to changing patterns Neither does meteorology just apply to crop management; livestock management for milk production depends on weather conditions too.
Finally, some use agricultural meteorology as an applied science to determine the relationships between a local environment, crops, soil types, soil profile, and understanding which crops can and cannot grow in certain types of soil.
Environmental Meteorology Environmental meteorology is concerned with the study of pollution and its effects on the climate as a forcing of local, regional and national weather patterns. It will look at such aspects as variation in temperatures, water vapor density humidityspeed and intensity of wind, and many other weather conditions and phenomena. It will also look at the physics of meteorological processes of acoustical, electrical, optical, and the thermodynamic processes of the atmosphere.
Meteorology: Something in the Air | rhein-main-verzeichnis.info
Cloud formation, precipitation, weather conditions and much more. Rather than looking at just the weather conditions resulting from meteorology, it also examines the potential impacts of weather conditions on the environment and on climate.
Extreme weather can change a landscape significantly and therefore alter the weather patterns. Long-term and large-scale modelling, data accumulation and analyses and modelling feature heavily in environmental modelling Hydrometeorology This is the subdivision of meteorology that fuses with the science of hydrologyexamining how water transfers from dry land evaporation and lower echelons of the atmosphere.
This examines cloud formation and the processes that lead to water-based natural phenomena, but it also predicts, projects and studies water hazards such as flooding and tropical cyclones, but also the effects of drought and land desertification - all these things concern precipitation and hydrology. Too much and it will flood, too little and drought ensues. Hydrometeorologists also monitor variation, quantity, intensity and distribution of rainfall. Examination of snowstorms also falls within the remit of hydrometeorology This is multidisciplinary, using applied math, statistics, but also computer data modeling.
Problems with the cross-disciplinary approach and lack of broad expertise are being addressed by some projects such as DRIHM which aims to use big data and broad methodology to improve hydrometeorological forecasting for the future 36 and mitigate the effects of extreme weather.
That EU project finished inbut its results will be useful for decades to come. Synoptic Meteorology As discussed above, the Synoptic Scale is the series of lines we see on a weather forecast map. Rather like contour lines on a map, how close or far apart they are, determines the weather pattern. Atmospheric drag produced by mountains must also be parameterized, as the limitations in the resolution of elevation contours produce significant underestimates of the drag. Mesoscale models divide the atmosphere vertically using representations similar to the one shown here.
The horizontal domain of a model is either global, covering the entire Earth, or regional, covering only part of the Earth. Regional models also known as limited-area models, or LAMs allow for the use of finer grid spacing than global models because the available computational resources are focused on a specific area instead of being spread over the globe.
This allows regional models to resolve explicitly smaller-scale meteorological phenomena that cannot be represented on the coarser grid of a global model. Regional models use a global model to specify conditions at the edge of their domain boundary conditions in order to allow systems from outside the regional model domain to move into its area. Uncertainty and errors within regional models are introduced by the global model used for the boundary conditions of the edge of the regional model, as well as errors attributable to the regional model itself.
The German weather service is using for its global ICON model icosahedral non-hydrostatic global circulation model a grid based on an regular Icosahedron.
Basic cells in this grid are triangles instead of the four corner cells in a traditional latitude-longitude grid. The advantage is that, different from a latitude-longitude cells are everywhere on the globe the same size. Disadvantage is that equations in this non rectangular grid are more complicated.