# Pressure and velocity relationship in fluids with electrolytes

### What is the relationship between pressure and velocity for a liquid and gas? | How Things Fly

the velocity vector. The vorticity is twice the local angular velocity (rate of rotation) of the fluid. .. Dimensionless equation relating the pressure gradient in the tangential direction metals, and salt water or electrolytes. The concept behind. When fluid is passing through the pipe having constant area of cross section Pressure and velocity have an inverse relation an example pumps are used to to . Learn more about pressure, buoyant force, and flowing fluid so you can Finding height of fluid in a barometer Volume flow rate and equation of continuity.

Colloids are restricted to the plasma compartment. If there is an electrolyte imbalance present then it may be necessary to add the appropriate electrolyte solution.

Fluid Rate Calculations When calculating the fluid requirements of a patient, there are 3 elements to consider - Replacement Maintainance Ongoing Losses Replacements are calculated based on the level of dehydration. Dehydration is based upon clinical assessment of each individual patient. Most commonly, skin tent is used for assessment. To calculate the amount required for replacement within a 24 hour period, the percentage dehydration is used in the following calculation.

Ongoing losses are calculated based on a predicted fluid amount lost by a patient within a 24 hour period. Common losses include vomitting and diarrhoea.

## Bernoulli’s Effect – Relation between Pressure and Velocity

It is often helpful here if the owners are able to give a detailed history as this makes it easier to predict the pattern of losses. In some patients there may be no ongoing losses and so this step can be skipped.

To calculate the fluid requirement, the following calculation is used. This is then further calculated depending on whether a drip pump is used or fluid rate is adjusted manually as shown below. It is important to also observe for signs of oedema, such as pulmonary oedema or ascites. It should not be stopped until hydration of the patient has returned to normal and the patient is able to maintain a normal hydration status independently.

Special Considerations Shock Shock is defined as decreased oxygen delivery or utilisation by tissues that may lead to irreversible cellular damage if prolonged. Patients who present in a state of shock require immediate fluid therapy. Cardiogenic is seen in any condition when there is a failure for the heart to pump effectively. Vascular can be sub-divided into - Obstructive is seen when there is an obstruction to blood flow to a region of tissue.

Distributive is seen when there is inappropriate vasodilation. This leads to changes in blood flow distribution between tissues. The first choice fluid in hypovolemic shock cases are isotonic crystalloid fluids and are given at a high flow rate. They are often administered as a rapid bolus followed by the high flow rate. In cardiogenic shock cases, often the patient is already in volume overload and so often treated with a diuretic. Obstructive shock is often treated by removal of the obstruction.

Anaesthesia Pre-anaesthetic Before an anaesthestic is performed, it is important to stabilise a patient, both fluid deficits and any electrolyte or acid-base inbalances. In many cases, it is ideal to have a minimum blood database.

Physics: Fluid Dynamics: Fluid Flow (1.5 of 7) Bernoulli's Equation: Unknown Velocity

A capacitor is equivalent to a tank with one connection at each end and a rubber sheet dividing the tank in two lengthwise [7] a hydraulic accumulator. When water is forced into one pipe, equal water is simultaneously forced out of the other pipe, yet no water can penetrate the rubber diaphragm. Energy is stored by the stretching of the rubber. As more current flows "through" the capacitor, the back-pressure voltage becomes greater, thus current "leads" voltage in a capacitor. As the back-pressure from the stretched rubber approaches the applied pressure, the current becomes less and less.

Thus capacitors "filter out" constant pressure differences and slowly varying, low-frequency pressure differences, while allowing rapid changes in pressure to pass through. An inductor is equivalent to a heavy paddle wheel placed in the current. The mass of the wheel and the size of the blades restrict the water's ability to rapidly change its rate of flow current through the wheel due to the effects of inertiabut, given time, a constant flowing stream will pass mostly unimpeded through the wheel, as it turns at the same speed as the water flow.

The mass and surface area of the wheel and its blades are analogous to inductance, and friction between its axle and the axle bearings corresponds to the resistance that accompanies any non-superconducting inductor.

An alternative inductor model is simply a long pipe, perhaps coiled into a spiral for convenience. This fluid-inertia device is used in real life as an essential component of a hydraulic ram. The inertia of the water flowing through the pipe produces the inductance effect; inductors "filter out" rapid changes in flow, while allowing slow variations in current to be passed through.

The drag imposed by the walls of the pipe is somewhat analogous to parasitic resistance. In either model, the pressure difference voltage across the device must be present before the current will start moving, thus in inductors voltage "leads" current. As the current increases, approaching the limits imposed by its own internal friction and of the current that the rest of the circuit can provide, the pressure drop across the device becomes lower and lower.

An ideal voltage source ideal battery or ideal current source is a dynamic pump with feedback control. A pressure meter on both sides shows that regardless of the current being produced, this kind of pump produces constant pressure difference.

If one terminal is kept fixed at ground, another analogy is a large body of water at a high elevation, sufficiently large that the drawn water does not affect the water level. To create the analog of an ideal current sourceuse a positive displacement pump: A current meter little paddle wheel shows that when this kind of pump is driven at a constant speed, it maintains a constant speed of the little paddle wheel.

Other circuit elements[ edit ] A simple one-way ball-type check valve, in its "open" state acts as a diode in its conducting state. A pressure-actuated valve combined with a one-way check valve acts as a field-effect transistor. Like a one-way check valve, a diode blocks current that flows the wrong way. Current that flows the right way goes through almost unchanged. Any kind of motor could be used here to drive the pump, as long as it oscillates. A diode is equivalent to a one-way check valve with a slightly leaky valve seat.

As with a diode, a small pressure difference is needed before the valve opens. And like a diode, too much reverse bias can damage or destroy the valve assembly. A transistor is a valve in which a diaphragm, controlled by a low-current signal either constant current for a BJT or constant pressure for a FETmoves a plunger which affects the current through another section of pipe. As the input pressure changes, the pistons allow the output to connect to either zero or positive pressure.

A memristor is a needle valve operated by a flow meter.

### Principles of Fluid Therapy - WikiVet English

As water flows through in the forward direction, the needle valve restricts flow more; as water flows the other direction, the needle valve opens further providing less resistance. Principal equivalents[ edit ] EM wave speed velocity of propagation is equivalent to the speed of sound in water.

When a light switch is flipped, the electric wave travels very quickly through the wires. Charge flow speed drift velocity is equivalent to the particle speed of water. The moving charges themselves move rather slowly. DC is equivalent to the a constant flow of water in a circuit of pipes.