Pomacentrus caeruleus damsel fish and algae symbiotic relationship

pomacentrus caeruleus damsel fish and algae symbiotic relationship

Most of our knowledge of reef-fish above the reef, in the water column. of small environment in relation to its food (Silvertown ), is planktonic prey, small Benthic (algae and/or small invertebrates) The damselfishes (Pomacentridae) in several Pomacentrus caeruleus P. cae 11 0 44–67 species of damselfishes. This month's mutualism is on the relationship between a farming damselfish and its garden of delicious algae. A species of damselfish, Stegastes nigricans, selectively weed the algal gardens on which they feed in order to encourage the growth of their.

In an ecomorphological was used to perform a hierarchical clustering, based on context, the preys were separated into six categories applying the Bray—Curtis similarity coefficient to all data reflecting the imposed functional constraints Barel The stomach con- tents were expressed by numerical methods Hyslop Results the number of items in each food category was recorded for each stomach, and the total was expressed as a percentage.

The stomachs of 10 individuals The variation in diet with size was also investigated in from examined specimens of the 13 species were Amphiprion akallopisos, Abudefduf vaigensis, Dascyllus found to be empty Table 1. One specimen of Abudefduf trimaculatus and Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus.

Samples of lateral muscle tissue filled with a great number of demersal fish eggs. Lipids were not removed from all samples. Seawater There were significant differences in the gut contents of samples were filtered through precombusted glass filters the 13 species, as shown in Fig. However, pairwise com- analysis of particulate organic matter POM. Carbon and parisons revealed that some species show nonsignificant nitrogen gas were analyzed on a V.

The three species of Abudefduf measurements were precise to within 0. Stable isotope ratios were expressed in d nota- tion according to the following: Carbon and nitrogen ratios are expressed relative to the vPDB Vienna Peedee Belemnite standard and to the atmospheric nitro- gen standard, respectively. The Kolmogorov—Smirnov test was used to test the normality of the data.

For abbreviations of the species, see Table 1.

Damselfish 'garden' algae | EurekAlert! Science News

The six prey Hierarchical clustering was performed based on applying a categories phytoplankton, benthic algae, sessile invertebrates, vagile Bray—Curtis similarity coefficient to percentage composi- invertebrates, zooplankton and detritus are represented by different tion data. In values in algae including turf algae ranged from Zoo- but, to a lesser extent, chaetognaths were also found in plankton had lower d13C and higher d15N than both algae almost all of the stomachs of A.

The second There were highly significant differences between the group of species is composed of Pomacentrus caeruleus, delta values of the 13 pomacentrid species one-way Chromis dimidiata and both Dascyllus species. The first group Awhich included Ch. Each Abudefduf species, the two Fig. For example, vagile invertebrates essentially Chromis species, D. This d13C variation is Pomacentrus baenschi, Pomacentrus trilineatus and significantly correlated with the SL only in Am.

All of the food sources had Stable isotopic analyses show that the 13 species can be lower d15N values than the fish species Fig. Isotopic divided into three main feeding guilds according their 14 B.

Isotopic signatures of each benthic algae species are summarized in one mean and a SD that reflects their disparity. Pomacentrid species belonging to the groups A, B or C and the potential primary food sources zooplankton, zoobenthos and algae are represented by different icons.

POM is the particulate organic matter foraging strategies: Dascyllus trimaculatus displays pelagic feeders group C and an intermediate group group the highest d15N values but also has a large size, and so Bfeeding on both pelagic and benthic prey Figs.

Pelagic feeders feeding preferences and some niche partitioning not shown Abudefduf species, Chromis species, D. For example, stomach contents revealed P.

In this group, Abudefduf D. Dascyllus aruanus is a carnivorous species that lated food is expected between two trophic levels DeNiro eats both zooplankton and vagile benthic invertebrates, and Epstein In this study, the d15N values of the explaining the intermediate position given by the stable fishes are higher than their potential food sources. Abbreviations of the species are given in Table 1 their diets occasionally include other selected food sources from the benthic compartment: The stomach contents of the benthic feeders group A are composed of variable proportions of fila- mentous algae.

Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus and Am. Solitary species, species same feeding group group Bstable isotope analysis living in pairs or in groups are depicted by icons showing one, two or three fish esrespectively.

For abbreviations of the species, see suggests that their trophic niche widths are different Table 1 Bearhop et al. Pomacentrus baenschi may be a true omnivore Fig. On the other hand, In the essentially compose the diet of P. This to three feeding guilds which exploit different ecosystem algal domination in the stomach contents could be acci- compartments: The variation in the d13C values.

This intrapopulation vari- first guild includes zooplanktivore species. This supports the general trends observed in other size-related, and it could reflect ontogenetic changes in pomacentrids from different geographical areas Emery food preference i. Only two species digested; Mariscal ; Allen or ontogenetic are known to be coral polyp feeders Allen ; Kuo and changes in behavior i.

Cheiloprion labiatus and Plectroglyphidodon which were not revealed by stomach content johnstonianus.

The dietary diversity among sympatric analysis, or it could be related to ontogenetic variability in damselfishes is relatively low in comparison with the 16 B. J Anim Ecol This might be because Bootsma HA, Hecky RE, Hesslein RH, Turner GF Food zooplankton, small benthic prey and filamentous algae are partitioning among Lake Malawi nearshore fishes as revealed by not limiting factors in coral reefs, thus facilitating species stable isotope analysis.

The diversity of dam- Ceccarelli DM Modification of benthic communities by territorial damselfish: Coral Reefs selfishes may be mainly related to behavior and habitat Coates D Prey-size intake in humbug damselfish, Dascyllus The studied species that feed on algae are solitary except aruanus Pisces, Pomacentridae living within social groups.

Mar Ecol Pomacentrus baenschi appears to have different shelters Prog Ser Species feeding of nitrogen isotopes in animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta mainly on small pelagic prey are generally found in Damselfish of all sizes feed primarily on caridea and copepods. Males have relatively smaller stomach sizes during spawning season compared to females due to the allocation of resources for courtship and the guarding of nests.

When current speeds are low, the damselfish forages higher in a water column where the flux of plankton is greater and they have a larger food source. As current speeds increase, it forages closer to the bottom of the column. Feeding rates tend to be higher when currents are faster.

Smaller fishes forage closer to their substrates than do larger ones, possibly in response to predation pressures. Females leave their territories temporarily during spawning in order to deposit their eggs in male territories. This increased mobility subjects them to greater risks of predationand females typically exhibit higher turnover rates than males do.

Male damselfish defend their clutches until the larvae hatch. They do so by continuously swimming in a circular pattern around their nests. Males compete against each other for reproductive territorial space. Smaller and less aggressive individuals are often relegated to secondary or suboptimal habitats and therefore exhibit lesser reproductive success.

Some are excluded from establishing territories altogether and usually exist as a floating population.

Damselfish

These fish do not take part in breeding and are at the greatest risk of predation. However, they may occupy territories that have been vacated whenever the opportunity arises. These territories provide them with hiding spots, dietary needs, and spawning sites.

Individuals in suboptimal territories frequently attempt to relocate, and so those in optimal habitats must constantly monitor territorial occupancy.

pomacentrus caeruleus damsel fish and algae symbiotic relationship

Territorial aggression is often proportional to territory quality. Movements outside of territorial borders, called forays, are common and may span distances of sixteen meters or more. Three types of forays exist. The shortest-distance ones are involved in foraging. Longer forays usually involve courtship activity and mating. Non-feeding and non-reproductive forays are associated with territorial reoccupation.

Courtship In the species S. Even though large male size can be advantageous in defending nests and eggs against conspecifics among many animals, nest intrusions are not observed in this damselfish species.

Females also do not choose their mates based upon the brood sizes of the males. In spite of the increased male parental care, brood size does not affect egg survival, as eggs are typically taken during the night when the males are not defending their nests. Rather, female choice of mates is dependent on male courtship rate. Males signal their parental quality by the vigor of their courtship displays, and females mate preferentially with vigorously courting males.

pomacentrus caeruleus damsel fish and algae symbiotic relationship

The signal jump involves large amounts of rapid swimming, and females choose mates based on the vigor with which males do so. Females determine the male courtship rates using sounds that are produced during signal jumps. As the male damselfish swims down the water column, it creates a pulsed sound. Male courtship varies in the number and rates of those pulses.