Person centered theory has influenced the counseling profession and on client's self-insights and acceptance in the therapeutic relationship. The Person-Centred Approach focuses on the clients own best authority as it is to complete an essay on ethical issues in the practice of counseling, For the person-centred approach to be effective a relationship built on. Person-centered therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, recognizes are characteristics of the therapist-client relationship, and they may vary by.
Key Concepts As previously mentioned, the humanistic approach has been a major influence on person-centred therapy. People have the tendency to work towards self-actualisation.
Self-actualisation refers to developing in a complete way. Conditions of worth refer to judgemental and critical messages from important people that influence the way the individual acts and reacts to certain situations.
Person Centered Therapy
When an individual has conditions of worth imposed on him or her, self-image is often low. Also, if the individual is exposed to overprotective or dominating environments, this can also have a negative impact on self-image Seligman, The fully functioning person: Generally, the fully functioning person will be open to experience, lives with a sense of meaning and purpose, and trusts in self and others.
The phenomenological approach refers to the unique perception by each individual of his or her own world. The individual experiences and perceives their own world and reacts in an individual way. General Ideas about Personality Development There are a number of general ideas about personality development with regard to person-centred therapy.
Basically, person-centred therapy states that personality can be fully actualised when the individual is exposed to unconditional positive regard. An individual who has been exposed to conditional positive regard can have low self-esteem and low feelings of worth. An individual who is self-actualised will be more open to experience and less defensive, will learn to live in the moment, will trust own decision-making skills, will have more life choices and be more creative.
Therapeutic Techniques and Methods of Working The goals of person-centred therapy are Seligman, This allows the client to be honest in the process without feeling judged by the therapist.
To empower the client to change. To help people to gain the ability to manage their lives and become self-actualised. The techniques employed in person-centred therapy are different from those employed in other therapies. The difference is that other therapies are often focused on something the client can do during the therapy session, whereas the techniques used in person-centred therapy are employed by the therapist to create an environment that facilitates the process of self-awareness.
The following techniques will be discussed in relation to the person-centred approach: Congruence is whether or not therapists are genuine and authentic in what they say and do. Quite often, if the therapist is saying one thing but the body language is reflective of something else, clients are aware of this and may impact on their trust and openness in the therapeutic relationship Seligman, The client can see this confusion and feels uncomfortable with expressing feelings from this point forward.
Therefore, a major role of therapists is to be aware of their body language and what they are saying as well as being in the present moment. If confusion arises, the therapist needs to be able to address this with the client.
Going back to the previous example of the therapist stating understanding and having a confused look, the therapist notices the client looks uneasy after the comment about understanding and goes on to explain to the client why and how he or she understands the statement.
This puts the client at ease and ensures the continuation of trust. Unconditional positive regard refers to the therapist accepting, respecting and caring about clients Seligman, It does not mean the therapist has to agree with everything the client says or does, however, the therapist should see the client as doing the best he or she can and demonstrate this by expressing concern rather than disagreeing with him or her.
Unconditional positive regard allows clients to express how they are thinking without feeling judged, and help to facilitate the change process by showing they can be accepted. Empathy is different to sympathy in that sympathy is often seen as feeling sorry for the client whereas empathy shows understanding and allows the client to further open up Seligman, I feel as though no one cares about me and that I am all alone.
So you are feeling alone at the moment and as if no one cares. The person-centred approach utilises nondirectiveness as a technique by its therapists. Nondirectiveness refers to allowing clients to be the focus of the therapy session without the therapist giving advice or implementing strategies or activities.
Rogers noticed that people tend to describe their current experiences by referring to themselves in some way, for example, "I don't understand what's happening" or "I feel different to how I used to feel". Central to Rogers' theory is the notion of self or self-concept. This is defined as "the organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself". It consists of all the ideas and values that characterize 'I' and 'me' and includes perception and valuing of 'what I am' and 'what I can do'.
Consequently, the self concept is a central component of our total experience and influences both our perception of the world and perception of oneself. For instance, a woman who perceives herself as strong may well behave with confidence and come to see her actions as actions performed by someone who is confident. The self-concept does not necessarily always fit with reality, though, and the way we see ourselves may differ greatly from how others see us.
For example, a person might be very interesting to others and yet consider himself to be boring. He judges and evaluates this image he has of himself as a bore and this valuing will be reflected in his self-esteem.
Person Centered Approach Note: Person centered therapy is also called client centered therapy. One major difference between humanistic counselors and other therapists is that they refer to those in therapy as 'clients', not 'patients'.
This is because they see the therapist and client as equal partners rather than as an expert treating a patient. Unlike other therapies the client is responsible for improving his or her life, not the therapist.
This is a deliberate change from both psychoanalysis and behavioral therapies where the patient is diagnosed and treated by a doctor. Instead, the client consciously and rationally decides for themselves what is wrong and what should be done about it. The therapist is more of a friend or counselor who listens and encourages on an equal level. One reason why Rogers rejected interpretation was that he believed that, although symptoms did arise from past experience, it was more useful for the client to focus on the present and future than on the past.
Rather than just liberating clients from their past, as psychodynamic therapists aim to do, Rogerians hope to help their clients to achieve personal growth and eventually to self-actualize.
There is an almost total absence of techniques in Rogerian psychotherapy due to the unique character of each counseling relationship. Of utmost importance, however, is the quality of the relationship between client and therapist. In Corey's view 'a preoccupation with using techniques is seen [from the Rogerian standpoint] as depersonalizing the relationship'.
The Rogerian client-centered approach puts emphasis on the person coming to form an appropriate understanding of their world and themselves. A person enters person centered therapy in a state of incongruence. It is the role of the therapists to reverse this situation.
Core Conditions Client-centered therapy operates according to three basic principles that reflect the attitude of the therapist to the client: The therapist is congruent with the client.
Person Centred Therapy - Core Conditions | Simply Psychology
The therapist provides the client with unconditional positive regard. The therapist shows empathetic understanding to the client. Congruence in Counseling Congruence is also called genuineness. Congruence is the most important attribute in counseling, according to Rogers. This means that, unlike the psychodynamic therapist who generally maintains a 'blank screen' and reveals little of their own personality in therapy, the Rogerian is keen to allow the client to experience them as they really are.
In short, the therapist is authentic. Unconditional Positive Regard The next Rogerian core condition is unconditional positive regard. Rogers believed that for people to grow and fulfill their potential it is important that they are valued as themselves. This refers to the therapist's deep and genuine caring for the client. The therapist may not approve of some of the client's actions, but the therapist does approve of the client. In short, the therapist needs an attitude of "I'll accept you as you are.
Empathy Empathy is the ability to understand what the client is feeling. This refers to the therapist's ability to understand sensitively and accurately [but not sympathetically] the client's experience and feelings in the here-and-now. An important part of the task of the person-centered counselor is to follow precisely what the client is feeling and to communicate to them that the therapist understands what they are feeling.
In the words of Rogersaccurate empathic understanding is as follows: Since we all resist change, we tend to view the other person's world only in our terms, not in his or hers.