On the relationship of social evolution and ecology in ungulates

on the relationship of social evolution and ecology in ungulates

The history of western Norwegian ungulates in a social-ecological context. . Scheiner, ), e.g. the ability to change diet in relation to available resources or. The Influence of Very Large Body Size on Ecology R. Norman Owen-Smith. Foster, J. B. On the relationship of social evolution and ecology in ungulates. EVOLUTION OF HORNS IN UNGULATES: ECOLOGY AND PALEOECOLOGY between habitat type, feeding behaviour, social behaviour and morphology. of the interrelationship between behaviour and morphology in an evolutionary.

Subdivisions and Ungulates Rural residential development in the Rocky Mountain West is resulting in increased conflict between ungulate habitat and infrastructure.

Subdivisions, houses, and roads in winter range affect ungulates both behaviorally and demographically and reduce management options available to agencies. I reviewed literature on the effects of land use change especially residential development on elk Cervus canadensismule deer Odocoileus hemionuswhite-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianusAmerican pronghorn Antilocapra americanaand bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis for Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks and the Montana Chapter of the Wildlife Society.

To date, only 23 studies specifically examined residential development and its influences on the focal species. Studies varied in methodology i. The literature suggests most ungulates exhibit short-term behavioral reactions to human disturbance. However, few studies link these responses to population-level consequences or test the cumulative impact that multiple developments and development types i.

Short-term and small-scale observational studies have articulated the conflict between humans and ungulates on shared habitat.

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Those studies need to be followed with well designed experiments and large scale jurisdictional projects so managers and planners can make more credible recommendations to direct future exurban development that benefits wildlife and humans. Want to see the final product? Follow me on social media News 7. New paper by the Liber Ero Fellows provides guidance on how to go about choosing new protected areas: Be sure to check out the new Road Trip Radio podcast for a celebration of all things Canadian.

I am interviewed in the episode on the Northwest Territories! Link to my interview HERE. The paper examined how art and other visual techniques can be used to develop robust cross-cultural collaborations and externalize the unique heterogeneity of biocultural diversity.

The article is open-access and freely available if you want to take a look: Are you curious about what it is like to live in the subarctic? I answered some questions for a blog series on northern living! You can find it HERE. It is open access and freely downloadable. Click HERE to view. The paper highlights the synergies between traditional knowledge, Dene language, and population genetics. You can watch or listen HERE. Find it open access HERE.

These early Equidae were fox-sized animals with three toes on the hind feet, and four on the front feet.

on the relationship of social evolution and ecology in ungulates

They were herbivorous browsers on relatively soft plants, and already adapted for running. The complexity of their brains suggest that they already were alert and intelligent animals. Rhinocerotoids diverged from other perissodactyls by the early Eocene. Fossils of Hyrachyus eximus found in North America date to this period. This small hornless ancestor resembled a tapir or small horse more than a rhino.

Three families, sometimes grouped together as the superfamily Rhinocerotoidea, evolved in the late Eocene: HyracodontidaeAmynodontidae and Rhinocerotidaethus creating an explosion of diversity unmatched for a while until environmental changes drastically eliminated several species. The first tapirids, such as Heptodonappeared in the early Eocene.

Ungulate - Wikipedia

The first true tapirs appeared in the Oligocene. By the Miocenesuch genera as Miotapirus were almost indistinguishable from the extant species.

on the relationship of social evolution and ecology in ungulates

Asian and American tapirs are believed to have diverged around 20 to 30 million years ago; and tapirs migrated from North America to South America around 3 million years ago, as part of the Great American Interchange. However, the rise of grasses in the Miocene about 20 Mya saw a major change: Nevertheless, many perissodactyl species survived and prospered until the late Pleistocene about 10, years ago when they faced the pressure of human hunting and habitat change. Arctocyon an arctocyonid Restoration of Mesonyx The artiodactyls are thought to have evolved from a small group of condylarths, Arctocyonidaewhich were unspecialized, superficially raccoon-like to bear-like omnivores from the Early Paleocene about 65 to 60 million years ago.

Subdivisions and Ungulates – Jean Lieppert Polfus

They had relatively short limbs lacking specializations associated with their relatives e. Their primitive anatomy makes it unlikely that they were able to run down prey, but with their powerful proportions, claws, and long canines, they may have been able to overpower smaller animals in surprise attacks. Mesonychians are depicted as "wolves on hooves" and were the first major mammalian predators, appearing in the Paleocene.

Like running members of the even-toed ungulates, mesonychids Pachyaena, for example walked on their digits digitigrade locomotion. The first artiodactyls looked like today's chevrotains or pigs: Suina the pig group ; Tylopoda the camel group ; and Ruminantia the goat and cattle group.