BBC - History - Mary, Queen of Scots, and her lover
At the time of their marriage in , when she was fifteen and he was twelve, Did Mary, Queen of Scots spend any time with her baby son James before she. He became King in , after his father, Henry II's death in a jousting John Erskine, 1st Earl of Mar (died ) was a trusted confidante of Mary Queen of Scots, the Protestant nobles advised Darnley that the relationship was improper. Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December – 8 February ), also known as Mary Stuart or He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in , and Mary briefly His House of Stuart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of .. Elizabeth also rejected the Association because she did not trust Mary to.
Regent Arran resisted the move, but backed down when Beaton's armed supporters gathered at Linlithgow. The arrests caused anger in Scotland, and Arran joined Beaton and became a Catholic. English forces mounted a series of raids on Scottish and French territory. Mary's guardians, fearful for her safety, sent her to Inchmahome Priory for no more than three weeks, and turned to the French for help. On the promise of French military help, and a French dukedom for himself, Arran agreed to the marriage.
In June, the much awaited French help arrived at Leith to besiege and ultimately take Haddington. On 7 Julya Scottish Parliament held at a nunnery near the town agreed to a French marriage treaty. BeatonSetonFlemingand Livingston. Mary and Francis in Catherine de' Medici 's book of hoursc.
She was considered a pretty child and later, as a woman, strikingly attractive. Henry commented that "from the very first day they met, my son and she got on as well together as if they had known each other for a long time".
Under the terms of the Treaty of Edinburghsigned by Mary's representatives on 6 JulyFrance and England undertook to withdraw troops from Scotland and France recognised Elizabeth's right to rule England. However, the seventeen-year-old Mary, still in France and grieving for her mother, refused to ratify the treaty. King Francis II died on 5 Decemberof a middle ear infection that led to an abscess in his brain. Only four of the councillors were Catholic: Even the one significant later addition to the council, Lord Ruthven in Decemberwas another Protestant whom Mary personally disliked.
She joined with Lord Moray in the destruction of Scotland's leading Catholic magnate, Lord Huntly, in after he led a rebellion in the Highlands against her.
People of influence Mary, Queen of Scots and James VI of Scotland
Elizabeth refused to name a potential heir, fearing that to do so would invite conspiracy to displace her with the nominated successor. However, when her uncle, the Cardinal of Lorrainebegan negotiations with Archduke Charles of Austria without her consent, she angrily objected and the negotiations foundered. Mary was horrified and banished him from Scotland. He ignored the edict, and two days later he forced his way into her chamber as she was about to disrobe. She reacted with fury and fear, and when Moray rushed into the room, in reaction to her cries for help, she shouted, "Thrust your dagger into the villain!
- Who's Who in the 16th Century?
- Mary, Queen of Scots: Biography, Facts, Portraits & Information
- Mary, Queen of Scots, and the Earl of Bothwell
Chastelard was tried for treason, and beheaded. Darnley's parents, the Earl and Countess of Lennoxwho were Scottish aristocrats as well as English landowners, had sent him to France ostensibly to extend their condolences while hoping for a potential match between their son and Mary. She spoke mostly French and was fond of typical courtly pursuits like dancing, masking, music and embroidery.
She was also an expert rider, courageous, spirited and headstrong - some said frivolous - and used to getting her own way. But she knew little of the affairs of state and had neither the temperament nor training for rule. Top Surrounded by enemies Mary's greatest handicap, however, was her religion: The leading Protestant lord was Mary's half-brother, the Earl of Moray, who had deposed her mother in Moray was the bastard son of James V and could never be King of Scotland.
Instead he became Regent and Scotland became Protestant. So when Mary arrived, she was surrounded by enemies, not least John Knox, the fiery Protestant preacher, who made regular attacks on her from the pulpit, calling her a jezebel and a heretic, and denouncing her loose French ways.
Yet, for the first two years of her personal rule, things went rather well because Mary was young and inexperienced and followed the advice of Moray and the Protestant lords. One of Mary's closest advisors at this time was the Earl of Bothwell, a tough, handsome border lord who was five years her senior.
Mary, Queen of Scots
Bothwell was officially Protestant because you had to be to get on. On the other hand he had stayed loyal to Mary's mother during the rebellion of and he now served Mary with the same devotion.
He was, first and foremost, a nationalist who wanted a strong and independent Scotland. His chief aim was to prevent an alliance with England - Protestant England - because he saw it as the first step to political union. Historians have tended to assume that Bothwell did not exert any significant influence over Mary until But the recent discovery of secret reports from Thomas Randolph, the English Ambassador to the Scottish Court, indicates a much earlier intimacy.
In Octoberfor example, he reported that Bothwell was 'near sybbe unto her grace', which means they were close friends though not necessarily lovers. Moray resented Bothwell's influence and took advantage of his feud with the Earl of Arran to imprison him in Bothwell escaped and fled to France, at which point Moray persuaded Mary to put down a supposed rebellion by Bothwell's friend, the Earl of Huntly, in the Catholic north-west of Scotland.
Because she was determined to succeed Elizabeth I as Queen of England. Moray had promised her that if she crushed the Huntly rebellion Elizabeth would look favourably on her claim - and she believed him. But even with Huntly dead, Elizabeth refused to meet her.
Mary had trusted her older half-brother, but he had simply used her to destroy a personal enemy and, in the process, further the Protestant cause. It was a turning point; Mary no longer trusted Moray and the Protestant lords and now turned, or returned, to the Catholic ticket.
It is generally believed that Bothwell was absent from Scotland during the crucial next two years when Mary began to take matters into her own hands. But Randolph's reports point unexpectedly to Bothwell's continuing influence. The upshot of meetings such as this one was that Mary chose Henry, Lord Darnley, as her new husband. By marrying Darnley, Mary hoped to strengthen the Catholic cause and enhance her claim to the English throne.
The wedding took place at the Chapel Royal at Holyrood on 29 JulyMary wearing black, as befitted a widow.
Mary Queen of Scots
Moray and some of the Protestant lords rebelled in protest, but were eventually driven into England by royal troops led by the Earls of Lennox and Bothwell, the latter having been recalled from France for the occasion. Bothwell was now at the height of his powers, a leading member of Mary's new - and largely Catholic - council. The only fly in the ointment was Darnley.
He spent little time with the Queen and even less on the affairs of state, preferring to hunt, hawk, drink and keep low company. Gradually the Queen fell out of love.
Mary Queen Of Scots | rhein-main-verzeichnis.info
But Darnley had done one thing right: Top Alone and defenceless The remaining Protestant lords saw Darnley as the weak link. They told him that Mary's Italian secretary, a former musician named David Rizzio, had too much influence at court. Because he was Mary's lover. The jealous and gullible Darnley believed them, and agreed to take part in Rizzio's murder. He also agreed to uphold the Protestant religion, and to the return from exile of the other Protestant lords.
There has never been any evidence that Mary was having an affair with Rizzio. If she had been, Randolph would have known, yet he does not mention it in any of his reports to Cecil. She spent days in her chamber weeping, close to nervous collapse.
Nevertheless, on 9 MarchMary was having a small supper party in her private apartments, with Rizzio and five close friends, when Darnley and a group of Protestant nobles burst in. They dragged Rizzio from the table and into the next room - where they stabbed him 56 times.
Bothwell had also been a target, but he managed to climb out of a window and descape to Dunbar. Alone and defenceless, Mary decided that her only hope was Darnley. Two nights after the murder she went to his room and convinced him that the Protestant lords were using him. Soon he was begging her forgiveness and together they escaped to Dunbar, where Bothwell was gathering an army. They returned to Edinburgh with the army and forced the murderers to flee.