Sergei Kirov | Biography, Assassination, & Facts | rhein-main-verzeichnis.info
Analyze: determine the nature and relationship of the component parts of; explain the importance of; Chapter 18, Section 95 "Stalin: The Five-Year Plans and the Purges". 1. ID: Kirov, Bukharin, "rightists," Great Terror of , Homeownership went up from just over 50% to 66%, the highest in Western Europe. The murder of Sergei Kirov on December 1, , set off a chain of events that culminated in It is doubtful that Kirov represented an immediate threat to Stalin's. The relationship between the state and religion was another area in which One is a discussion of plans for the de velopment of bacterial warfare. "Kirov was killed because he was scum. he looked at the portrait of Stalin at the if he is a homeowner. and the only supporter of Soviet power in the country and at.
Kostrikov began using the pen name "Kir", first publishing under the pseudonym "Kirov" on 26 April A second story is that he based it on the name of the Persian king Cyrus. Simon Sebag Montefiore writes: In Astrakhan he enforced Bolshevik power in March with liberal bloodletting: When a bourgeois was caught hiding his own furniture, Kirov ordered him shot.
Kirov was a loyal supporter of Joseph Stalinand in he was rewarded with the command of the Leningrad party organization. Kirov was a close, personal friend of Stalin, and a strong supporter of industrialization and forced collectivization.
Based on the industrialization, we conduct the transformation of our agriculture. Namely we centralize and collectivize. Kirov praised Stalin for everything he did since the death of Vladimir Lenin. Tomsky committed suicide expecting the arrest. However, Kirov intervened and had the order countermanded.
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According to Alexander OrlovStalin then ordered Yagoda to arrange the assassination. Yagoda ordered Medved's deputy, Vania Zaporozhets, to undertake the job. Zaporozhets returned to Leningrad in search of an assassin; in reviewing the files he found the name of Leonid Nikolayev.
Various accounts of his life agree that he was an expelled Party member and failed junior functionary with a murderous grudge and an indifference towards his own survival.
He was unemployed, with a wife and child, and in financial difficulties. According to Orlov, Nikolayev had allegedly expressed to a 'friend' a desire to kill the head of the party control commission that had expelled him. His friend reported this to the NKVD. On 15 OctoberNikolaev packed his Nagant revolver in a briefcase and entered the Smolny Institute where Kirov worked. Although he was initially passed by the main security desk at Smolny, he was arrested after an alert guard asked to examine his briefcase, which was found to contain the revolver.
Though Nikolayev had clearly broken Soviet laws, the security police had inexplicably released him from custody; he was even permitted to retain his loaded pistol. These four guards accompanied Kirov each day to his offices at the Smolny Institute, and then left. On 1 Decemberthe usual guard post at the entrance to Kirov's offices was left unmanned, even though the building served as the chief offices of the Leningrad party apparatus and as the seat of the local government.
Whatever the case, given the circumstances of Kirov's death, as former Soviet official and author Alexander Gregory Barmine noted, "the negligence of the NKVD in protecting such a high party official was without precedent in the Soviet Union.
Unopposed, he made his way to the third floor, where he waited in a hallway until Kirov and Borisov stepped into the corridor. Borisov appears to have stayed well behind Kirov, some 20 to 40 paces some sources allege Borisov parted company with Kirov in order to prepare his luncheon. He was sentenced to death by shooting on 29 Decemberand the sentence was carried out that very night.
The hapless Commissar Borisov died the day after the assassination, supposedly by falling from a moving truck while riding with a group of NKVD agents.
Borisov's wife was committed to an insane asylum. According to Orlov, Nikolayev's mysterious 'friend' and alleged provocateur, who had supplied him with the revolver and money, was later shot on Stalin's personal orders. Arrested immediately after the assassination, Nikolayev's wife, Milda Draule, survived her husband by three months before being executed as well. Their infant son who was named Marx following the Bolshevik naming fashion was sent into an orphanage.
Marx Draule was alive in when he was officially rehabilitated as a victim of political repressions, and Milda was also found innocent retrospectively. However, Nikolayev was never posthumously acquitted. Several NKVD officers from the Leningrad branch were convicted of negligence for not adequately protecting Kirov, and sentenced to prison terms of up to ten years. Once again he would boom out in a confident bass, not caring how his words would be taken, unafraid of being laughed at.
There are problems in life, certainly, but none is insuperable. It is a fundamental truth in a working-class state. With effective party leadership, i.
Mistakes are made, but mistakes are not held against you if you are willing to learn. The working-class state is a land of opportunity for the masses of working people. There are a million controversial issues raised in The Zhurbins, but I know that you will all enjoy one of them. There are two anti-heroes in the book. One of them is a thorough bad lot who slinks off one dark night, never to be seen again.
The other is a weak man who nevertheless manages to retrieve himself at the last minute and settle down in a post where he can make himself useful. Neither of them drinks! How the Steel was Tempered When I read The Zhurbins for the first time I was quite sure that no other Soviet novel could be as good, but I was soon to find out that, on the contrary, the genre contained a vast treasurehouse of interesting reading.
The Zhurbins is a rattling good read, as well as being educational and informative. How the Steel Was Tempered goes that little extra distance that makes it great literature.
It shares the other features of Soviet novels — socialist realism, occasional humour, its depiction of the Soviet working class as the masters of society, who are, however, not perfect either as individuals or even en masse, but are nonetheless heroic — both as a whole and as regards a high proportion of the individuals who make up that whole. It is not, by the way, a book that has anything whatever to do with the steel industry.
The steel of the title represents the will and determination of the working class to remove every obstacle, however intractable, that stands in the way of their building their new future. In the course of fighting these obstacles, the dross falls away — that is to say that workers overcome backward thinking, and new Soviet men and women are born. The action takes place mostly in the Ukraine in the aftermath of the Great October Revolution, when the Soviets are still fighting to free the area of German and Polish interventionists and of bourgeois nationalist ambitions to control it.
It is a book which does not flinch from describing the horrors of the struggle — and in particular the cruelty with which the proprietor classes treated the proletariat in an effort to hang on to their estates and privileges in the face of the ever greater Bolshevisation of the masses.
The author describes, for instance, the terror, bravely borne, of a young girl in prison who knows that she can expect to face rape and murder at the hands of her captors the following day. He describes a pogrom against helpless, defenceless, unarmed Jewish poor — detailing the tactical considerations of the perpetrators of the pogrom, whose aim in organising it is to distract attention from the defeats they are suffering and attempt to lift the morale of their followers.
He describes the venality of local peasants, poor people themselves, who loot the homes of the unfortunate victims. His hero, Pavel Korchagin, is of an age with himself and many of the incidents he describes are based on his own involvement in the struggles of the period. For instance, one incident that describes the implacable heroism of ordinary people and which really occurred, and in which Ostrovsky himself also played a leading role, was the laying of a special narrow-gauge railway track into the forest under extremely adverse winter weather conditions.
The work was done between October and January and will have taken some 3 months. It was a case of either lay the track or leave the town without fuel supplies for the winter — which would have led to starvation as the ability to replenish food stocks was also dependent on fuel at that time of year.
The conditions of work were unimaginably dreadful and, having laboured all day, the workers had to sleep at night on a cold, bare, wet concrete floor in a building without heating, without glass in its windows and which had a badly leaking roof. While originally volunteers were taken on for only two weeks — and many of them could not take even that — because it was considered that the conditions were too arduous for anybody to stay any longer on the project, in fact many of the volunteers remained on the project throughout for lack of volunteers to take their place.
This episode broke the health of both Korchagin and his creator, Ostrovsky. Their contribution to the work was ended when as a result of coming down with typhus they quite literally were unable to work any longer.
Nevertheless the job was completed. The town was saved. There are two vivid scenes associated with this episode which perhaps help to show what makes Ostrovsky a great author as opposed to just a very good one.
Pavel early on in the novel, when he is little more than a young urchin of 16, is befriended by a middle class girl of similar age, and they fall in love. Of course, nothing much comes of it because they are rarely able to meet. The girl nevertheless influences Pavel to tidy himself up and try to make something of himself. At this early stage one is thinking — oh dear, still some vestiges here of the bourgeois philanthropic idea that a man can be saved by a good woman, especially one who has been educated and thus able to show the great unwashed the proper way of doing things.
Anyway, Pavel goes off to fight the interventionists and the Petlyura bandits. In a short time his class consciousness is heightened, along with his sense of dignity and self-respect as a worker. Nevertheless he still remembers his old girl friend with great fondness and is delighted to be meeting up with her again, even hoping that they might get married.
During the course of the building of the narrow-gauge railway, however, the two meet up again. The scene is very beautiful and allegorical.
She happens to be travelling in a train which is brought to a stop near where the volunteers are working. The workers on the project are a rough sight, for they have been living for weeks in conditions unfit even for animals. Most, including Pavel, are too poor even to be able to afford proper boots. She steps off the train with her husband, some smooth professional type, and comes face to face with Pavel, whom she is hardly able to recognise.
How sad that he has been unable to make something of himself and has simply ended up as a navvy. She is ashamed to acknowledge their previous acquaintance. Through this minor theme I think Ostrovsky was, without making heavy weather of it in any way, actually encouraging people to shed any illusions they might have in educated people i. He is pointing out that their class instincts tend to nullify the value of their education. Such people were not worthy of the respect that had traditionally been accorded to them.
Their lives and thoughts were full of empty-headed frivolity and philistinism. In an ordinary novel the little middle-class girl might have been saved by the working-class hero, but How the Steel Was Tempered is a great novel. His concern is not for the fulfilment of wishful thinking but of the practical importance of attacking backward thinking habits which could lead the revolution into difficulties. The second incident I was referring to comes slightly later when the railway line is complete.
Sergey Kirov - Wikipedia
The town is no longer facing disaster. Here he finds workers apparently engaged in aping the frivolity and empty-headedness of the privileged classes of yore. They are playing various kinds of kissing game.
He walks out of the party, overwhelmed with disgust, seething with contempt for the foolishness of the whole thing. You are left to work it out for yourself. This is in fact a very common feature in Soviet novels. They do not spell out rights and wrongs.
They raise genuine social dilemmas with the arguments on both sides, heightening consciousness of the difficulties and then leaving it to the good senses of their readers to work through these difficulties, now that they are more aware of them, in the course of their own experience. Throughout the book the reader takes a ride, as it were, in a proletarian mind whose class-consciousness is gradually and inexorably developing and maturing.
Through the eyes of this person you see the history of this critical period of proletarian history evolve. The words of bourgeois cynics try to break through to you as you ride this roller coaster. How can these uneducated workers and peasants possibly be expected to defeat the highly-trained German or Polish armies?
How can they complete construction works that are clearly impossible? A good novel — but just propaganda! The facts, however, prove otherwise. The Germans and Poles were driven out of the Ukraine. The nationalists were defeated. And the people who did it were none other than the downtrodden worker and peasant masses of the Ukraine. This novel helps you to understand in human terms how these victories were possible. They were possible not because there was no backwardness, no cowardice, no wavering, no philistinism — there were plenty of all those things among workers.
They were possible because of the leadership of the Bolshevik Party, which organised the advanced workers to lead the less advanced, enabling the massive creative energies of the working class to emerge from the swamp of backwardness. How the Steel was Tempered really shows you how this was done.
Just before leaving the subject of How the Steel was Tempered, let me give you a short example of the humour that also pervades this great novel: Somebody did enter the town during the night. They took one look at the picture and jumped on him — a good twenty strokes they gave him.
And no matter how hard he tried to explain and how loud he yelled, nothing helped. The novel details the struggle of Korchagin to continue to serve the revolution in spite of increasing infirmity. Finally, blind and with his body mostly paralysed, he makes one of his most important contributions to the proletarian revolution in the form of his novel. Ostrovsky died at the age of only A brief look at the wide variety of Soviet novels Every Soviet novel sets out to add to the knowledge of its readers, not just their class consciousness and understanding.
All set out to provide you with a delicious, enjoyable, nutritious, healthy and balanced meal for the mind, as it were, rather than the cheeseburger of the bourgeois detective novel, say.
Soviet novels are informative on a wide variety of interesting topics. In addition they deal with the major social concerns of the Soviet people — for instance, Light in Koordi deals with collectivisation and Far From Moscow with the industrialisation of the far east.
Without that there cannot be real friendship or genuine love. In Students, one learns a few things about Russian literature while following the adventures of university students striving to sweep out the bad habits of expectation of privilege and self-seeking that had hitherto been associated — and to some extent still was — with the pursuit of higher learning. The Soviet Union also produced excellent historical novels.
Genghis Khan, for instance, is extremely informative about the economics of the Mongol empire. Since the writers of Soviet historical novels research not just the lives of the rich and powerful but are also consistently interested in the life of ordinary people and their means of livelihood, Soviet historical novels are also tend to be more consistently informative than their bourgeois counterparts. It shows that while it was certainly the business of Party organisers to make sure peasants knew of the possibility of collectivisation, facilitating visits, for instance, to existing collective farms in Russia or elsewhere, for the peasants to pool their resources in collectives had to be their own decision.
The novel shows how easy the decision is for the poorest peasants, even though Soviet power brought them land of their own when never previously had they had any, or enough. They can quickly see how much easier life will be when resources are pooled, land is not wasted in supporting dividing boundaries, rational use can be made of machinery, and how the collective can carry people who are temporarily deprived of their ability to work e.
Middle peasants are a lot less decisive about the whole thing: For the rich peasants, however, the collective is very bad news. Even though they remain outside it, the collective deprives them of the labour of impoverished peasants which they were formerly able to exploit. Their path to riches is blown away, and they use every bit of their power and influence to try to prevent the path of collectivisation from running smoothly.
One of the nicest touches about Light in Koordi is that it presents us with a series of mysteries as to how people will react in the long run. Presented with a number of peasants, all of whom have strong points as well as weaknesses, we follow the process of their evolution as the lure of collectivisation catalyses their social progress.