Administration Across Cultures
Culture consists of the beliefs, behaviors, objects, and other characteristics common to the members of a particular group or society. Through culture, people and groups define themselves, conform to society's shared values, and contribute to society. Thus, culture includes many. Cultural determinism The view that the nature of a society is shaped primarily by the ideas . Impression management A term used by Goffman to describe the efforts of Kinship Socially defined family relationships, including those based on. Cybernetics Evergetics Developing society Management processes . of the world, i.e. by definition, the society is heterogeneous (nonuniform), and this heterogeneity hierarchical relationship between “superiors” and “subordinates” ). . The man of culture is a key figure in the developing society which is.
Differentiation, functional The division of labor or of social roles within a society or an organization. Differentiation, rank The unequal placement and evaluation of various social positions. Diffusion The spread of inventions and discoveries from one group or culture to another on a voluntary basis; a source of cultural change.
Discovery The uncovering of something that existed but was unknown; a source of cultural change. Discrimination The unequal and unfair treatment of individuals or groups on the basis of some irrelevant characteristic, such as race, ethnicity, religion, sex, or social class. Division of labor The assignment of specialized tasks to various members of a group, organization, community, or society. Dominant status One social position that overshadows the other social positions an individual occupies.
Domination The control of one group or individual by another. Double standard A set of social norms that allows males greater freedom of sexual expression, particularly before marriage, than females.
Dramaturgical analysis An approach to social situations developed by Erving Goffman in which they are examined as though they were theatrical productions. Dual-career families Families in which both husband and wife have careers. Dual economy The conceptual division of the private sector of the economy into monopoly core and competitive periphery sectors.
Society and Culture
Dyad A group composed of two people. Dysfunction Any consequence of a social system that disturbs or hinders the integration, adjustment, or stability of the system.
Ecological paradigm A theory of land use and living patterns that examines the interplay among economic functions, geographical factors, demography, and the replacement of one group by another.
Ecological succession In urban sociology, the replacement of one group by another over time. Ecological view An approach to the study of culture or other social phenomena that emphasizes the importance of examining climate, food and water supplies, and existing enemies in the environments. Ecology The scientific study of how organisms relate to one another and to their environments.
Economic core The sector of the economy characterized by large, generally very profitable, oligopolistic firms that are national or multinational in scope; also called the monopoly sector. Economic growth An increase in the amount of goods and services produced with the same amount of labor and resources. Economic institution The pattern of roles, norms, and activities organized around the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services in a society. Economic periphery The sector of the economy characterized by small, local, barely profitable firms; also called the competitive sector.
Ecosystem A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with its environment. Education The process, in school or beyond, of transmitting a society's knowledge, skills, values, and behaviors. Egalitarian marriage A family in which husband and wife share equally in family decision making.
Ego In Freudian theory, a concept referring to the conscious, rational part of the personality structure, which mediates between the impulses of the id and the rules of society. Elderly dependency ratio The ratio between the number of the elderly 65 and over and the number of working-age people ages 18 to Emergent norm theory A theory of collective behavior suggesting that people move to form a shared definition of the situation in relatively normless situations.
Emotion work An individual's effort to change an emotion or feeling to one that seems to be more appropriate to a given situation. Equilibrium In functionalist theory, the view that the parts of a society fit together into a balanced whole. Ethnic group A group that shares a common cultural tradition and sense of identity.
Ethnocentrism The tendency to see one's own culture as superior to all others. Ethnography A detailed study based on actual observation of the way of life of a human group or society.
Ethnomethodology The study of the methods used by individuals to communicate and make sense of their everyday lives as members of society. Many ethnomethodologists focus on the study of language and everyday conversation. Evangelicalism A form of Protestantism that stresses the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the validity of personal conversion, the Bible as the basis for belief, and active preaching of the faith.
Evolutionary theories Theories of social change that see societies as evolving from simpler forms to more complex ones. In biology, the theory that living organisms develop new traits that may aid their adaptation or survival. Exchange A form of social interaction involving trade of tangibles objects or intangibles sentiments between individuals. Exchange theory An interpretive perspective that explains social interaction on the basis of the exchange of various tangible or intangible social rewards.
Experiment A carefully controlled situation where the independent variable is manipulated while everything else remains the same; the aim is to see whether the dependent variable will change.
Experimental group In research, the group of individuals exposed to the independent variable that is being introduced by the experimenter. Explanatory study A research study with the goal of explaining how or why things happen the way they do in the social world. Expressive A type of role that involves the showing of emotional feelings or preferences in interpersonal relationships. Expressive leader A group leader whose role in the group is to help maintain stability through joking, mediating conflicts, and otherwise reducing tension.
Extended family A family in which relatives from several generations live together. Face-work A term used by Goffman to refer to the actions taken by individuals to make their behavior appear consistent with the image they want to present.
Fads Striking behaviors that spread rapidly and that, even though embraced enthusiastically, remain popular for only a short time. Family Two or more persons who are related by blood, marriage, adoption, or serious long-term commitment to each other, and who live together. They usually form an economic unit, and adult members care for the dependent children. Fashion A socially approved but temporary style of appearance or behavior. Flow An experience of total involvement in one's present activity.
Folkways Social norms to which people generally conform, although they receive little pressure to do so. Formal organizations Highly structured groups with specific objectives and usually clearly stated rules and regulations. Formal sanction A social reward or punishment that is administered in an organized, systematic way, such as receiving a diploma or getting a fine.
Functional approach A theoretical approach that analyzes social phenomena in terms of their functions in a social system. Functional equivalent A feature or process in society that has the same function consequence as some other feature or process Functions The consequences of social phenomena for other parts of society or for society as a whole. Fundamentalism A form of religious traditionalism characterized by the literal interpretation of religious texts, a conception of an active supernatural, and clear distinctions between sin and salvation.
Game A form of play involving competitive or cooperative interaction in which the outcome is determined by physical skill, strength, strategy, or chance. Gemeinschaft A term used by Tonnies to describe a small, traditional, community-centered society in which people have close, personal, face-to-face relationships and value social relationships as ends in themselves.
Gender The traits and behaviors that are socially designated as "masculine" or "feminine" in a particular society. Gender differences Variations in the social positions, roles, behaviors, attitudes, and personalities of men and women in a society. Gender gap Differences in the way men and women vote. Gender-role expectations People's beliefs about how men and women should behave. Gender stratification The hierarchical ranking of men and women and their roles in terms of unequal ownership, power, social control, prestige, and social rewards.
Generalized other A general idea of the expectations, attitudes, and values of a group or community. Genocide The destruction of an entire population. Gentrification The movement of middle-class and upper-middle-class persons usually white into lower-income, sometimes minority urban areas. Gesellschaft A term used by Tonnies to describe an urban industrial society in which people have impersonal, formal, contractual, and specialized relationships and tend to use social relationships as a means to an end.
Global economy An economy in which the economic life and health of one nation depends on what happens in other nations. Green revolution The improvement in agricultural production based on higher-yielding grains and increased use of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. Groups Collections of people who share some common goals and norms and whose relationships are usually based on interactions. Groupthink The tendency of individuals to follow the ideas or actions of a group.
Health maintenance organizations HMOs Organizations that people pay a fee to join in return for access to a range of health services.
Society and Culture - Oxford Reference
Heterosexual A person whose preferred partner for erotic, emotional, and sexual interaction is someone of the opposite sex. Hierarchy The arrangement of positions in a rank order, with those below reporting to those above. Hispanics A general term referring to Spanish-speaking persons. It includes many distinct ethnic groups. Homosexual Someone who is emotionally, erotically, and physically attracted to persons of his or her own sex.
Horizontal mobility Movement from one social status to another of about equal rank in the social hierarchy. Horticultural societies Societies in which the cultivation of plants with hoes is the primary means of subsistence. Hospice An organization designed to provide care and comfort for terminally ill persons and their families.
Human-capital explanation The view that the earnings of different workers vary because of differences in their education or experience. Hunting and gathering societies Societies that obtain food by hunting animals, fishing, and gathering fruits, nuts, and grains. These societies do not plant crops or have domesticated animals. Hybrid economy An economic system that blends features of both centrally planned and capitalist market economies.
Hyperinflation Anextreme form of inflation. Hypothesis A tentative statement asserting a relationship between one factor and something else based on theory, prior research, or general observation. Id In Freudian theory, a concept referring to the unconscious instinctual impulses-- for instance, sexual or aggressive impulses.
Ideal values Values that people say are important to them, whether or not their behavior supports those values. Identification theories Views suggesting that children learn gender roles by identifying with and copying the same-sex parent. Ideology A system of ideas that reflects, rationalizes, and defends the interests of those who believe in it.
Impression management A term used by Goffman to describe the efforts of individuals to influence how others perceive them. Incest Sexual intercourse with close family members. Incest taboo The prohibition of sexual intercourse between fathers and daughters, mothers and sons, and brothers and sisters.
Culture and Society Defined
Income The sum of money wages and salaries earnings plus income other than earnings. Independent variable The variable whose occurrence or change results in the occurrence or change of another variable; the hypothesized cause of something else.
Individualism A belief in individual rights and responsibilities. Induction Reasoning from the particular to the general. Industrialization The shift within a nation's economy from a primarily agricultural base to a manufacturing base. Industrialized societies Societies that rely on mechanized production, rather than on human or animal labor, as the primary means of subsistence. Inflation An increase in the supply of money in circulation that exceeds the rate of economic growth, making money worth less in relation to the goods and services it can buy.
Informal sanction A social reward or punishment that is given informally through social interaction, such as an approving smile or a disapproving frown. Innovation The discovery or invention of new ideas, things, or methods; a source of cultural change. Instinct A genetically determined behavior triggered by specific conditions or events. Institution of science The social communities that share certain theories and methods aimed at understanding the physical and social worlds.
Institutionalization of science The establishment of careers for practicing scientists in major social institutions. Institutions The patterned and enduring roles, statuses, and norms that have formed around successful strategies for meeting basic social needs. Instrumental A type of role that involves problem-solving or task-oriented behavior in group or interpersonal relationships.
Instrumental leader A group leader whose role is to keep the group's attention directed to the task at hand. Interest group A group of people who work to influence political decisions affecting them.
Intergenerational mobility A vertical change of social status from one generation to the next. Interlocking directorates The practice of overlapping memberships on corporate boards of directors. Intermittent reinforcement In learning theory, the provision of a reward sometimes but not always when a desired behavior is shown.
Internalization The process of taking social norms, roles, and values into one's own mind. Interpretive approach One of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology; focuses on how individuals make sense of the world and react to the symbolic meanings attached to social life.
Intragenerational mobility A vertical change of social status experienced by an individual within his or her own lifetime. Invention An innovation in material or nonmaterial culture, often produced by combining existing cultural elements in new ways; a source of cultural change.
IQ intelligence quotient test A standardized set of questions or problems designed to measure verbal and numerical knowledge and reasoning. Keynesian economics The economic theory advanced by John Maynard Keynes, which holds that government intervention, through deficit spending, may be necessary to maintain high levels of employment.
Kinship Socially defined family relationships, including those based on common parentage, marriage, or adoption. Labeling theory A theory of deviance that focuses on the process by which some people are labeled deviant by other people and thus take on deviant identities rather than on the nature of the behavior itself.
Labor-market segmentation The existence of two or more distinct labor markets, one of which is open only to individuals of a particular gender or ethnicity. Laissez-faire economics The economic theory advanced by Adam Smith, which holds that the economic system develops and functions best when left to market forces, without government intervention. Language Spoken or written symbols combined into a system and governed by rules.
Law The system of formalized rules established by political authorities and backed by the power of the state for the purpose of controlling or regulating social behavior.
Learning theory In psychology, the theory that specific human behaviors are acquired or forgotten as a result of the rewards or punishments associated with them. Legal protection The protection of minority-group members through the official policy of a governing unit.
Legitimate In reference to power, the sense by people in a situation that those who are exercising power have the right to do so. Lesbian A woman who is emotionally, erotically, and physically attracted to other women. Life chances The probabilities of an individual having access to or failing to have access to various opportunities or difficulties in society.
Life course The biological and social sequence of birth, growing up, maturity, aging, and death. Life-course analysis An examination of the ways in which different stages of life influence socialization and behavior. Life expectancy The average years of life anticipated for people born in a particular year.
Life-style Family, child-bearing, and educational attitudes and practices; personal values; type of residence; consumer, political, and civic behavior; religion. Life table A statistical table that presents the death rate and life expectancy of each of a series of age-sex categories for a particular population.
Line job A job that is part of the central operations of an organization rather than one that provides support services for the operating structure. Lobbying The process of trying to influence political decisions so they will be favorable to one's interests and goals. Location In Kanter's view, a person's position in an organization with respect to having control over decision making. Looking-glass self The sense of self an individual derives from the way others view and treat him or her.
Macro level An analysis of societies that focuses on large-scale institutions, structures, and processes. Magic According to Malinowski, "a practical art consisting of acts which are only means to a definite end expected to follow.
Marriage A social institution that recognizes and approves the sexual union of two or more individuals and includes a set of mutual rights and obligations.
Marriage rate Number of marriages in a year per single women 15 to 44 years old. Marriage squeeze A situation in which the eligible individuals of one sex outnumber the supply of potential marriage partners of the other sex.
Marxian approach A theory that uses the ideas of Karl Marx and stresses the importance of class struggle centered around the social relations of economic production. Mass hysteria Widely felt fear and anxiety. Mass media Widely disseminated forms of communication, such as books, magazines, radio, television, and movies. Matthew effect The social process whereby one advantage an individual has is likely to lead to additional advantages.
Mean, arithmetic The sum of a set of mathematical values divided by the number of values; a measure of central tendency in a series of data. Median The number that cuts a distribution of figures in half; a positional measure of central tendency in a series of data. Medicaid A federal-state matching program that provides medical assistance to certain low income persons. Medicare A federal health insurance program. Individuals are eligible if they receive Social Security benefits, federal disability benefits, or sometimes if they have end-stage kidney disease.
Method of comparison An approach that compares one subgroup or society with another one for the purpose of understanding social differences. Methodology The rules, principles, and practices that guide the collection of evidence and the conclusions drawn from it. Metropolitan Statistical Area MSA A geographical area containing either one city with 50, or more residents or an urban area of at least 50, inhabitants and a total population of at leastexcept in New England where the required total is 75, Micro level An analysis of societies that focuses on small-scale process, such as how individuals interact and how they attach meanings to the social actions of others.
Civilizationswith complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments. In addition to this there are: Humanityhumankind, upon which rest all the elements of society, including society's beliefs.
Virtual societya society based on online identity, which is evolving in the information age. Over time, some cultures have progressed toward more complex forms of organization and control. This cultural evolution has a profound effect on patterns of community. Hunter-gatherer tribes settled around seasonal food stocks to become agrarian villages.
Villages grew to become towns and cities.
Cities turned into city-states and nation-states. This type of generosity can be seen in all known cultures; typically, prestige accrues to the generous individual or group. Conversely, members of a society may also shun or scapegoat members of the society who violate its norms.
Mechanisms such as gift-givingjoking relationships and scapegoatingwhich may be seen in various types of human groupings, tend to be institutionalized within a society.
Social evolution as a phenomenon carries with it certain elements that could be detrimental to the population it serves. Some societies bestow status on an individual or group of people when that individual or group performs an admired or desired action.
This type of recognition is bestowed in the form of a name, title, manner of dress, or monetary reward. In many societies, adult male or female status is subject to a ritual or process of this type. Altruistic action in the interests of the larger group is seen in virtually all societies. The phenomena of community action, shunning, scapegoating, generosity, shared risk, and reward are common to many forms of society.
Types[ edit ] Societies are social groups that differ according to subsistence strategiesthe ways that humans use technology to provide needs for themselves. Although humans have established many types of societies throughout history, anthropologists tend to classify different societies according to the degree to which different groups within a society have unequal access to advantages such as resources, prestige, or power.
Virtually all societies have developed some degree of inequality among their people through the process of social stratification, the division of members of a society into levels with unequal wealth, prestige, or power.
Sociologists place societies in three broad categories: Pre-industrial society In a pre-industrial society, food production, which is carried out through the use of human and animal laboris the main economic activity. These societies can be subdivided according to their level of technology and their method of producing food. These subdivisions are hunting and gathering, pastoral, horticultural, agricultural, and feudal.
Hunting and gathering[ edit ] Main article: Hunter-gatherer society San people in Botswana start a fire by hand. The main form of food production in such societies is the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals. Hunter-gatherers move around constantly in search of food. As a result, they do not build permanent villages or create a wide variety of artifactsand usually only form small groups such as bands and tribes.
However, some hunting and gathering societies in areas with abundant resources such as people of tlingit lived in larger groups and formed complex hierarchical social structures such as chiefdom. The need for mobility also limits the size of these societies.
They generally consist of fewer than 60 people and rarely exceed Statuses within the tribe are relatively equal, and decisions are reached through general agreement. The ties that bind the tribe are more complex than those of the bands. Leadership is personal—charismatic—and used for special purposes only in tribal society.
There are no political offices containing real power, and a chief is merely a person of influence, a sort of adviser; therefore, tribal consolidations for collective action are not governmental. The family forms the main social unitwith most members being related by birth or marriage. This type of organization requires the family to carry out most social functions, including production and education.
Pastoral society Pastoralism is a slightly more efficient form of subsistence. Rather than searching for food on a daily basis, members of a pastoral society rely on domesticated herd animals to meet their food needs.
This does not always happen, but it does occur more often than you probably think. You can still stay authentic to yourself, at the same time as you try to understand the other and flex your behavior to create a win-win situation for both of you.
What about adapting to a national culture as an expatriate or immigrant, is it a threat to you? Will you forget your origins? You will probably adapt over time, which could mean forgetting some cultural codes and habits have had some funny situations with that myself. This is in fact practical and it makes sense. We humans have historically been masters at adapting to our environments.
Your values will likely stay the same, though. Creating a successful environment with people from different national cultures working together requires that you make an effort to build a common understanding, trust and commitment.