Grass | Definition of Grass by Merriam-Webster
Over his prolific career, Joshua Dressler has authored many important works devoted to criminal defenses. Among those is one of the most nuanced and. This week, the Supreme Court held that the Fourth Amendment across their private property searching for evidence of a crime. Marriage and Family precedent, but holds true to the original meaning of the Constitution. Yard definition, a common unit of linear measure in English-speaking countries, Scotland Yard released a video of the extraordinary crime in an appeal for Old English gierd rod, twig; related to Old Frisian jerde, Old Saxon gerdia, Old High.
To help professors teach all six levels of learning optimally, this article provides a neuroscience and cognitive psychology perspective on how students learn. This section serves as a reference for any professor interested in how students learn.
The article reviews research that indicates that students learn more, at deeper levels, while retaining information longer when they engage in multimodal learning, especially learning involving visual aids and visual exercises.
This article serves three purposes. First, it provides professors with a review of the theoretical and scientific literature on learning theory as it applies to law school.
Crime & Public Safety
This information will provide professors a reference when they reform the overall legal curriculum, modify teaching strategies, and create innovative teaching methods.
Secondly, this article provides professors with information about teaching methods that increase student learning and retention in law school, on the bar, and for a lifetime career in law. Third, this article provides concrete guidelines for law faculty interested in incorporating visual aids effectively in their teaching. The article also provides many concrete examples of specific teaching techniques that professors could adopt in their own class immediately. Burton Angela O. Children in state foster care systems and juvenile prisons are particularly at risk of overmedication with psychotropic drugs.
Psychotropic drugs act directly on the brain to affect behavior, emotion, or mood. Because they are deemed to be highly addictive and susceptible to abuse and diversion into the illegal drug trade, some are designated as controlled substances under the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances, This international treaty requires the United States government to protect the public — including children in state custody — from medically unjustified exposure to psychotropic drugs.
In particular, the treaty requires that psychotropic drugs be prescribed only for medical purposes and administered in accordance with sound medical practice, and that the government prohibit their advertisement directly to the public.
Analyzing the conditions under which state-involved children are prescribed and administered these highly addictive and powerful drugs, this Article concludes that the United States is in violation of the Convention because it permits drug companies to advertise controlled psychotropic substances such as methylphenidate, commonly sold as Ritalin, directly to the public, fails to restrict the prescription of psychotropic drugs to state-involved children for medical purposes only, and does not ensure that psychotropic drugs are administered to children in accordance with sound medical practice.
The Article calls on the United States government to take swift and aggressive steps to comply with the Convention so as to ensure that children in foster care and in juvenile prisons are protected from excessive and unwarranted exposure to psychotropic drugs.
Chandler Jennifer A. Chandler 33 Dalhousie L. The sociological theory of the autonomy of technology suggests that if neuroscientific techniques come to be seen as reliable for this purpose, other objections will soon be abandoned. Surveillance Surveillance is related to defensible space. Visibility from windows provides an overlook of the setting, extending the surveillance potential.
Surveillance is enhanced by providing adequate lighting and landscaping that promotes unobstructed views. Landscaping can serve as a screen or buffer to define a space but should not act as a barrier to public view by police or other passers-by. Considering social interaction, studies confirm that perpetrators avoid areas with greater surveillance and greater likelihood of intervention.
A series of studies of Chicago inner-city neighborhoods found that outdoor spaces with trees are consistently used more often by residents of all ages than are treeless spaces, and the greater the number of trees in the space, the greater the number of simultaneous users. Implied surveillance is equally important; criminals might be deterred by place cues suggesting that surveillance is likely even when no observers are present.
Mental Health A final perspective on crime is the mental state of the person who engages in antisocial behavior. The power of the physical environment to influence human aggression is well established and has been reviewed by Landscape and Human Health Laboratory scientists. The information processing demands of everyday life—traffic, phones and texting, stresses at work, and complex critical decisions—all take their toll on mental well-being, resulting in mental fatigue, a state characterized by inattentiveness, irritability, and impulsivity.
Such demands draw down the capacity to identify appropriate solutions and control personal behaviors. Mental fatigue may contribute to aggression because of its effects on cognitive processing. Information processing plays a central role in managing social situations, especially in avoiding potential conflicts. With mental fatigue, social behavior is likely to become increasingly thoughtless, tactless, and unstrategic, allowing conflicts to spiral out of control,81 potentially leading to aggression.
Mental fatigue may also contribute to aggression because of its effects on emotion—specifically, heightened irritability. Irritability appears to be a frequent side effect of mentally fatiguing tasks82,83 and is linked with aggression.
In summary, three psychological factors—impairments in cognitive processing, irritability, and impulsivity—has been scientifically implicated in aggression. Mental fatigue can contribute to outbursts of anger and even violence.
Attention restoration theory proposes that exposure to natural settings reduces mental fatigue - or more precisely, directed attention fatigue. It is possible that impulsive crimes committed out of frustration or rage can be reduced through the beneficial effects of natural settings on mental fatigue.
Some crime prevention specialists have advocated removal of most, if not all, vegetation in potential problem areas.
However, the relationship between natural settings and crime prevention is more complicated than originally thought. More research is needed to look directly at urban greenspace, crime and causality. Nonetheless, initial theory and evidence suggests that vegetation may be linked to lower levels of crime in residential neighborhoods, particularly poor inner-city neighborhoods.
Residential vegetation has been linked to a greater sense of safety, fewer incivilities, and less aggressive and violent behavior.
The link between urban forestry and urban greening with healthier social systems is surprisingly straightforward. The presence of trees and well-maintained lower understory vegetation can transform barren spaces lands into pleasant, welcoming, well-used places. Such common spaces serve to strengthen ties among residents, increase informal surveillance, and deter crime, thereby creating healthier, safer urban communities. Prepared by Kathleen Wolf, Ph.
Moritz College of LawHome - Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law
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MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience
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Crime and Public Safety :: Green Cities: Good Health
Environment and Behavior 22, 2: Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames. The Physical Environment of Street Crime: Defensible Space, Territoriality and Incivilities. The Human Dimensions of Urban Greenways: Planning for Recreation and Related Experiences.
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