Misconceptions about fructose-containing sugars and their role in the obesity epidemic
The dynamic relationship between the prices of re® ned sugar and high fructose corn . sugar, and acquisition of market share by HFCS manufac-. turers. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), also known as glucose-fructose, isoglucose and . For the period from to , HFCS had a 27–30% share of the Japanese sweetener market. Health concerns have been raised about a relationship between HFCS and .. "Enzymatic Conversion of d-Glucose to d- Fructose". Keywords: Fructose, sugar, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, obesity, the relationship between metabolic diseases on one hand, and either sugar intake consumed quite substantial amounts (about g/d or more) of fructose for 1 of “forcing” fructose, especially HFCS-sweetened beverages from the market?.
Misconceptions about fructose-containing sugars and their role in the obesity epidemic
Its rationale has 2 essential justifications: There are significant flaws in the fructose hypothesis that are seldom acknowledged: It is the purpose of this review to challenge the fructose hypothesis by offering new perspectives on fructose consumption and metabolism, with the aim of restoring reason and objectivity to the fructose debate.
Current status of knowledge Historical sugars consumption trends Historical sugars consumption trends in the United States. Sucrose and HFCS consumption statistics are often incompletely reported or exaggerated to justify research.
HFCS was introduced to the food and beverage industry as a liquid alternative to sucrose in the late s and rapidly gained market share over the next two decades at the expense of sucrose, replacing almost half of it on a nearly 1: Although seldom acknowledged, it is undeniable that HFCS use peaked in and has been in steep decline for more than a decade; marked a return to use levels.
It must be noted that this decade-long decline has occurred as obesity rates continued to climb. There is likewise no correlation with other diet-related chronic diseases that have increased over the past decade.
Commodity group energy intake trends in the United States. Figure 2 compares USDA commodity group energy increases over the past 40 y for caloric sweeteners, flour and cereal products, and added fats, oils, and dairy fats.
Two surprising discoveries emerged from the comparison: Figure 2 View large Download slide Commodity group energy intakes, — Added sugars intake has been decreasing since Added sugars have not increased disproportionately as the modern diet inflated over the past 40 y; in fact, they have been in decline for more than a decade.
To blame contemporary health problems on HFCS specifically, or caloric sweeteners generally, diverts attention from the most likely contributor to overweight and obesity: It also reported a concomitant decline in energy from sugar-sweetened beverages SSB sincecorrecting the misperception created by references to broad or outdated statistics that recent SSB intakes continue to increase 17 — The misperception that added sugars and SSB intakes continue to increase in the American population is simply untrue and should no longer be allowed as a justification for research.
Fructose increased little in 90 y; no association with increasing rates of obesity. With the growing agreement among experts that HFCS and sucrose are metabolically equivalent has come a renewed focus by some on the fructose component common to both. As noted earlier, fructose has been investigated as a causative factor in many contemporary diseases with metabolic origins.
What is the relationship between D-glucose and D-fructose? | Socratic
However, the comparison in Figure 3 of historical trends in fructose exposure from added sugars between and with one of these, obesity, generates a useful perspective 13 Consistent with HFCS and SSB, intakes of fructose and total caloric sweeteners have also been decreasing since and are now comparable to levels. Figure 3 View large Download slide Historical trends in fructose and caloric sweetener consumption availability versus contemporary rates of obesity in adults.
Despite the introduction of new caloric sweeteners, fructose intake has not substantively increased since ; it has been decreasing since and there is no correlation with obesity. There is no correlation between consumption of fructose and increasing rates of obesity Fig.
Historical data from the past century invalidate the first tenet of the fructose hypothesis, which seeks to implicate fructose as an important risk factor through increasing intakes and correlation with obesity and associated diseases.
Sugars consumption patterns Dietary fructose sources contain comparable glucose. When considering the human diet, it is necessary to accept the reality that all sources of fructose contain comparable amounts of glucose. The primary dietary source of fructose is caloric sweeteners and their composition is shown in Figure 4.
HFCS seems a poor name in hindsight because medium fructose is more in line with its composition; the name has been a source of understandable confusion. Sucrose is found naturally in many food plants along with the monosaccharide fructose.
In many fruits, such as pineapple and apricotsucrose is the main sugar. In others, such as grapes and pearsfructose is the main sugar. Chemical synthesis[ edit ] Model of sucrose molecule Although sucrose is almost invariably isolated from natural sources, its chemical synthesis was first achieved in by Raymond Lemieux. Seen from a human consumption perspective, honeybees are especially important because they accumulate sucrose and produce honeyan important foodstuff all over the world.
The carbohydrates in honey itself primarily consists of fructose and glucose with trace amounts of sucrose only.
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This includes grapes, cherries, blueberries, blackberries, figs, pomegranates, tomatoes, avocados, lemons and limes. Sucrose is a naturally occurring sugar, but with the advent of industrializationit has been increasingly refined and consumed in all kinds of processed foods.
Production[ edit ] History of sucrose refinement[ edit ] Table sugar production in the 19th century. Sugar cane plantations upper image employed slave or indentured laborers. The picture shows workers harvesting cane, loading it on a boat for transport to the plant, while a European overseer watches in the lower right. The lower image shows a sugar plant with two furnace chimneys.
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Sugar plants and plantations were harsh, inhumane work. Sugar nips were required to break off pieces. History of sugar The production of table sugar has a long history. Some scholars claim Indians discovered how to crystallize sugar during the Gupta dynastyaround AD On their return journey, the Greek soldiers carried back some of the "honey-bearing reeds".
Sugarcane remained a limited crop for over a millennium. Sugar was a rare commodity and traders of sugar became wealthy. Venice, at the height of its financial power, was the chief sugar-distributing center of Europe. Only after the Crusades did it begin to rival honey as a sweetener in Europe.
The Spanish began cultivating sugarcane in the West Indies in Cuba in The Portuguese first cultivated sugarcane in Brazil in Sugar remained a luxury in much of the world until the 18th century. Only the wealthy could afford it. In the 18th century, the demand for table sugar boomed in Europe and by the 19th century it had become regarded as a human necessity.
Suppliers marketed sugar in novel forms, such as solid cones, which required consumers to use a sugar nipa pliers-like tool, in order to break off pieces. The demand for cheaper table sugar drove, in part, colonization of tropical islands and nations where labor-intensive sugarcane plantations and table sugar manufacturing could thrive. Growing sugar cane crop in hot humid climates, and producing table sugar in high temperature sugar mills was harsh, inhumane work.
The demand for cheap and docile labor for this work, in part, first drove slave trade from Africa in particular West Africafollowed by indentured labor trade from South Asia in particular India.
The modern ethnic mix of many nations, settled in the last two centuries, has been influenced by table sugar. The steam engine first powered a sugar mill in Jamaica inand, soon after, steam replaced direct firing as the source of process heat.
High-fructose corn syrup
During the same century, Europeans began experimenting with sugar production from other crops. Andreas Marggraf identified sucrose in beet root  and his student Franz Achard built a sugar beet processing factory in Silesia Prussia. However, the beet-sugar industry really took off during the Napoleonic Warswhen France and the continent were cut off from Caribbean sugar.