The Symbiotic Relationship between Zooxanthellae and Coral by Brianna Velasquez on Prezi
The symbiotic relationship allows the slow growing corals to compete with the Most reef-building corals normally contain around x zooxanthellae cm-2 . «Zooxanthellae» The genus Symbiodinium encompasses the largest and These dinoflagellates are therefore among the most abundant eukaryotic microbes found in coral reef ecosystems. . zooxanthellae and coral symbiotic relationship Examples of use in the English literature, quotes and news about zooxanthellae. After all, we know that coral animals (hosts) and zooxanthellae (symbionts) New information may make us re-think the symbiosis between Symbiodinium and the production of MAAs is an energetically expensive process (they quote a .. B from Acropora species on the Great Barrier Reef (Crabbe and Carlin, ).
Like plants, zooxanthellae capture energy from the sun and turn it into food, some of which the coral eats in exchange for protection. Where Do They Live? Smithsonian Institution As you can see in this diagram, the zooxanthellae live within the tissue of their host coral. The coral polyp itself lives in a cup it built from calcium carbonate; decades of piled up calcium carbonate cups create the reef.
Photo Collection of Dr.
Coral Reef Destruction and Conservation
Their pink color comes from the zooxanthellae living inside. More about coral reef ecosystems can be found in our Coral Reefs featured story. Bleached Corals, Pacific Ocean Credit: Wolcott Henry When the reef is under stress from high temperatures, pollution, or other threats, the zooxanthellae abandon their coral hosts in a process called "bleaching.
When they die, just the white skeleton is left behind as if it had been bleached. Bleaching spells trouble for coral reefs. How do these zooxanthellae obtain their nutrition? Is it from the water column, or does the relationship become one of parasitism, where the dinoflagellate robs the animal of its resources? Perhaps we'll have an answer as more research is conducted. It should be noted that the concept of parasitic zooxanthellae is not new - see Stat et al.
These researchers believe Clade A zooxanthellae found in Hawaiian Acropora hyacinthus could compete with co-occurring Clade C for resources from the coral, thus becoming parasitic to the animal.
In another hypothesis, perhaps Clade A never fully achieved a mutualistic relationship with the coral.
There is evidence that some clades become seasonally parasitic. Coral Fidelity to Its Symbiont While the idea that corals may adapt to changing environmental conditions by 'shuffling' zooxanthellae is an intriguing one, it seems to be the norm for the host to retain a specific symbiont. This has been found to be true for corals used in transplantation experiments: Fungia scutaria specimens retained their Pacific zooxanthella clade decades after transfer to the Caribbean; Hawaiian Porites compressa did the same when transferred from depth to the shallows.
However, it has been established that dominance of a certain clade within a coral can be only temporal.
Timing is or May Be Everything Venn et al. In near shore environments subject to thermal variations, Clade A was predominant, while those anemones in more thermally stable environments hosted mostly Clade B. In addition, Clade A was most prevalent during periods of warm water temperature During the winter, when water temps dropped to Clade Nomenclature Unfortunately, there is not a universally recognized protocol for identifying different zooxanthellae clades.
Meaning of "zooxanthellae" in the English dictionary
Generally, however, a clade is identified by an alphanumeric tag - a primary capitalized alphabetical symbol A, B, C, etc. Not all researchers have followed this code and have labeled newly discovered strains by a capitalized letter and a symbol unique to that clade e. It seems certain that most works use the former method of classification, and that the latter identification symbols will eventually conform to a widely-accepted standard.
Be aware that there are several interchangeable names for 'clade', including 'group', 'type', 'phylotype', etc. Clade A Clade "A" zooxanthellae are generally considered relatively hardy resistant to a number of environmental shiftsand are found in scleractinian corals, octocorals, hydrocorals, clams, anemones and zoanthids.Coral Bleaching
Clade A is considered ancestral to all other Symbiodinium lineages. A phylogenic tree demonstrating relationships among zooxanthellae clades, along with host information.
After LaJeunesse et al. Interestingly, Stat et al. These researchers found Clade A to fix and release only a fraction of carbon compared to Clade C.
If Clade A produces only a small percentage of carbon compounds, then its very existence within the host is in danger, especially when conditions are sub-optimal. On the other hand, Stat mentions that an anemone Condylactis gigantea containing Clade A zooxanthellae did not suffer from any ill effects from the symbiosis. Reported Species in Clade "A": Many often early researchers listed cladal types simply as "A", "B", "C", etc. These taxa were listed as "A": Symbiodinium microadriaticum subspecies microadriaticum.
biosystems: Coral and Zooxanthellae
Found within tissues of the jellyfish Cassiopeia and some corals, including Cassiopeia xamachana, C. This zooxanthella species acclimates to high and low light levels. A1 is known to produce to produce at least two mycosporine-like amino acids mycosporine-glycine and shinorine, Banaszak et al.
Even so, Clade A1 apparently has a capacity to 'process' absorbed light energy photonsthus preventing a 'traffic jam' of electrons between zooxanthellae Photosystems I and II, thus preventing chronic Photoinhibition Hennige et al.
Found in the tissues of the Caribbean anemone Condylactis gigantea. A1a Reported Depth Range: A2 Reported Depth Range: Caribbean and Pacific Host Species: