The Canada-US trade and energy relationship - Policy Options
Analysis of US-Canada energy shipments of export cargo and development of energy resources and expansive crossborder trade,” the. On the other hand, Canada and the US have differ- ent energy sources, . Table 2, developed by the NRTEE, illustrates the types of trade-off risks at play from. The United States and Canada are each other's largest energy as well as highlights some of the important issues in the development of this.
Canadian-American Relations | The Canadian Encyclopedia
Canada was the new president's first international visit photo by Charles Dharapak, courtesy CP Archives. Previous Next Canada and the United States have one of the world's unique relationships: Despite radically different beginnings, as well as a history of war, conflict and cultural suspicion, the two countries — one more powerful than the other — stand as a modern example of inter-dependence and co-operation that is a model to the world.
Revolutionary Fallout Canada's nationhood was in many ways a by-product of the American Revolutionwhen the victory of the Thirteen Colonies led to the exodus of Loyalist Americans to British North America.
Many brought with them a deep distrust of the United States and its political system. Many American revolutionaries thought the revolution incomplete while Britain retained a North American presence.
Conflict seemed inevitable, and the Napoleonic Wars spilled over into North America in The War of was fought defensively by the British and half-heartedly by the Americans. Both sides welcomed the Treaty of Ghentwhich brought some settlement of outstanding problems between British North America and the United States.
The Convention of provided for continuation of the boundary from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. In the east, commissioners appointed under the Treaty of Ghent sorted out boundary problems, except in northern Maine. In the s and s Upper and Lower Canadians opposed to their governments looked with increasing favour upon American democracy. After his defeat Mackenzie fled to the United States, where he fomented border troubles for the following year see Hunters' Lodges.
A British show of military force and American official unwillingness to support the rebels ended the threats to British North America. In the Ashburton-Webster Treaty settled the northeastern boundary, but problems west of the Rockies were cleared up in the Oregon Treaty only after war threatened. In fears subsided as British North America and the United States were linked by a reciprocity treaty, but they returned suddenly with the American Civil War of Northern Americans resented what they felt was Britain's pro-Southern sympathy.
British North America and the United States managed to avoid military confrontation, but the end of the war led to new tensions because it was thought that the North might take revenge against Britain, and because Fenians were organizing to invade British North America. Diplomacy and Accommodation Confederation, the subsequent withdrawal of British garrisons, and conflicts in Europe impelled Britain and Canada to seek settlement of outstanding differences with the Americans in the Treaty of Washington.
Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonalda member of the British negotiating team, grumbled about the terms, but the treaty was useful to Canada in that the United States, through its signature, acknowledged the new nation to its north. Thereafter, Canada's concern about the American military threat diminished rapidly. There were fears of American interference as Canada established sovereignty over the North-West, but by the late s both nations looked back at three decades of remarkably little conflict.
In a Joint High Commission, reflecting this spirit as well as the Anglo-American desire for rapprochement, sought to remedy remaining discord. The commission broke down, with only minor matters settled. One question on which agreement was not reached was the Alaska Boundary Disputefor which another tribunal was established and which led to Canadian anger, more toward Britain than against the United States.
It produced a conviction that in the future Canada must rely increasingly on its own resources and less on Britain. Canada therefore undertook to establish direct institutional links with the United States. Best known was the International Joint Commissionestablished in In Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier went farther than most Canadians would go when he proposed a reciprocity agreement with the United States.
In the Canadian election campaign old animosities reappeared, the Conservatives were elected and reciprocity died. Nevertheless, the new Prime Minister Robert Borden quickly reassured the Americans that he wanted to maintain good relations. That message probably eased tensions, particularly after Canada entered the First World War automatically under Britain inwhile the United States remained neutral. When the US itself finally entered the war inthe two countries recognized their common heritage and interests to an unprecedented extent.
Later, with Prime Minister Mackenzie King 's Liberals in power, there was an ever stronger tendency to emphasize Canada's "North American" character and, by implication, its similarity to the US.
In the s and s Canadians and Americans mingled as never before. Canadian defence strategy was altered as planners dismissed the possibility of cross-border conflict. Economic and cultural linkages strengthened as suspicions of American influence receded. Canada and the US established legations in and no longer dealt with each other through British offices. More important was the impact of American popular culture through radio, motion pictures and the automobile.
- Government of Canada
- Canadian-American Relations
- U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
The Canadian government tried to regulate broadcasting and film but largely failed. Inas another European war loomed, Roosevelt publicly promised support if Canada was ever threatened. Roosevelt did co-operate closely after the Second World War erupted in September Emissions of other air pollutants would also be higher. Renewable Sources of Energy Canada is committed to making its energy production and use cleaner by increasing energy efficiency, expanding renewable energy production and reducing environmental impacts from conventional sources.
There is the potential to more than double hydroelectric capacity in Canada.
Canada is a world leader in hydropower production, with an installed capacity of over 70, megawatts MWand an annual average production of terawatt-hour TWh. Canada now produces the equivalent to power 1, homes. There are 25, MW of wind projects in various stages of development. Solar power Solar energy production is growing in Canada.
As ofthere were approximatelym2 of solar collectors operating in Canada that displaced an estimated 50, tonnes of CO2. Biomass Inbiomass created 1, MW of electrical energy. The majority of this production is in the pulp and paper industry, which uses by-products to produce steam and electricity. Geothermal power There are more than 30, geothermal energy installations in Canada. They are used for residential, commercial, institutional and industrial purposes. Biofuels Canada is a world leader in the development of processes for converting cellulosic-based feedstocks, such as agricultural and forestry waste, to cellulosic ethanol.
With support from the Government of Canada, Iogen Corporation built the world's first full-scale demonstration plant to convert biomass fibres to cellulosic ethanol using enzyme technology. Located in Ottawa, Ontario, the plant can process over 25 tonnes of wheat straw per week, using enzymes produced in an adjacent facility. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel produced from a variety of fats and vegetable oils, which include oilseeds such as canola and soybeans, rendered animal fats, recycled restaurant grease and palm oil.