The Weather Quiz
6) The Coriolis force is strongest when the wind speed is ______ and the latitude is 8) What is the driving force of weather on earth? wind sun air pressure rain. What type of relationship is this? Why does moist air lower the air pressure than dry air? . What weather instrument is used to measure wind direction?. This quiz requires students to identify names of basic weather instruments, their purposes, This weather instrument measures air pressure. A.
This question was addressed using standard Regression Analysis by Wooten and Tsokos ab in "A proposed new scale to identify the category of a Hurricane's status. To further test this relationship, the relations were re-analyzed using this new statistical method and then extended this to include non-response analysis together with interaction between wind speed and pressure.
However, wind formation is a result of temperature difference; pressure and wind speed are co-dependent on temperature.
Therefore, to test for the affects of temperatures the analysis was further extended and the issue of volume has also been addressed Powell and Reinhold, It has been shown that the relationship between wind speed and pressure are co-dependent with temperature. It was first considered the relationship between wind speed and pressure within a storm and then considered more complex relationships between wind speedpressure and temperature near the surface of the water.
Having identified statistically the relationship in the subject data, it allows meteorologist to determine estimates of each variable as a function of the other variables, depending on the time of year and on the non-functional relationship obtained. Understanding the non-functional relationship between temperature, pressure and wind speed s is useful in understanding the dynamics that exist within a tropical storm.
Therefore we have 2 The data for the first part of the study are taken from website http: With readings every three hours, we have a sample of size With nearly days of hourly readings, we have a sample of size There variables included in this second data set include pressure and wind speed in addition to temperatures atmospheric, water and dew point from which we will use Wooten's augmented matrix to determine the relationship that exist among the variables including interaction between the wind speed and pressure.
Then using standard statistical methods for multiple regression, we have the following data matrices: The parameter estimates are given in Table 1 including the analysis of variance and regression statistics. This model indicates that when there is no wind present, the atmospheric pressure is approximately With a standard error of 9.
Clouds and weather
As proof on concept, we will estimate this same relationship using Wooten's augmented matrix and compare the results. The alternative model is: Modeling done using standard multiple-regression can also be done using augmented matrices. This gives a scaled model in terms of pressure as a function of wind speed of as shown in Fig. The apparent differences are due to the fact that the data used to calibrate both models where recorded under hurricane conditions and therefore standard atmospheric pressure is extrapolated information.
First we will test the relationship between wind speed and pressure assuming interaction and then with the full second order model. Consider the augmented model including interaction without second order terms: Using the developed non-response analysis, we have to be: This gives a scaled model in terms of the smallest coefficient of Where the parameter estimates are given in Table 3.
The parameter estimates are given in Table 3 ; with Solving for pressure we have: This rising air is replaced by more warm, humid air from the ocean below. And the cycle continues, drawing more warm, moist air into the developing storm and moving heat from the surface to the atmosphere. But what about those signature ferocious winds? Converging winds at the surface are colliding and pushing warm, moist air upward. This rising air reinforces the air that's already ascending from the surface, so the circulation and wind speeds of the storm increase.
In the meantime, strong winds blowing the same speed at higher altitudes up to 30, feet or 9, meters help to remove the rising hot air from the storm's center, maintaining a continual movement of warm air from the surface and keeping the storm organized.
- How Hurricanes Work
- Air & Wind Quiz
- Weather Instruments
If the high-altitude winds don't blow at the same speed at all levels -- if wind shears are present -- the storm becomes disorganized and weakens. As high-pressure air is sucked into the low-pressure center of the storm, wind speeds increase. Winds and Pressure Patterns: Over land, winds do generally blow faster where the PGF is stronger isobars are closer together Over oceans, winds do generally blow faster where the PGF is stronger isobars are closer together Winds over oceans are generally faster than winds over land for the same PGF can explain this by noting that friction is greater over land than oceans because land is rougher--it has vegetation, hills and mountains, buildings, etc.
Near the earth's surface in the Northern Hemisphere, maps showing winds and pressure patterns isobars show that winds don't typically blow perpendicular to isobars toward their lower pressure side, but instead blow at an angle skewed somewhat to the right clockwise relative what we'd expect.
In the Northern Hemisphere aloft the discrepancy is even greater: Coriolis effect We observe moving things for example, air parcels and lots of other things from the perspective of the earth, which is rotating while we make our observations. Hence we, the observers, are following a gradually curving path through space while we watch things move relative to us.
Clouds and weather (video) | NOVA Labs | Khan Academy
Even if no net force acts on a moving object, so that its motion doesn't change according to the Principle of Conservation of Momentumwe observe it to follow what appears to be a curved deflected path the object is following a curved path--instead, we are, but we just don't perceive it! Illustrations of the Coriolis effect YouTube Movie: Some guys play catch on a rotating merry-go-round According to the Principle of Conservation of Momentum, any object that follows a curving path is changing its motion and therefore must have a net force pushing on it.
To account for the apparent deflection of moving objects, we invent a fake force, the Coriolis force: Aloft, the winds blow so that the Coriolis "force" pushing on moving air to its right appears approximately to balance the PGF pushing on it toward lower pressure animation of combined effects of PGF and Coriolis force without friction the resulting wind is called the geostrophic wind examples at mb level there is a relatively narrow zone of large PGF aloft at midlatitudes, where the geostrophic winds are correspondingly faster and blow eastward on the average the jet stream At the surface, the winds blow so that the Coriolis "force" pushing on moving air to its rightthe PGF pushing on air toward lower pressureand friction pushing against the direction of the wind, trying to slow it downproduces distinctive wind patterns Lab Exploration 6: Pressure at any level in the atmosphere must approximately support the weight of air above that level that is, approximately balance the force of gravity pulling down on the air above that level.
Since the total weight of air above you decreases as you go higher in the atmosphere, it follows that the pressure must decrease as you go higher, too. Of course, this is what we observe. When air in the lower troposphere warms, it expands and lifts air sitting on top of it upward. At any particular level above the warmed air below, some air that started below that level will be lifted up past that level.
This increases the amount of air above that level, and hence the weight of air above that level. This requires that the pressure at that level, pushing upward, must increase to support the increased weight of air above that level.
When air in the lower troposphere cools, it contracts and air sitting on top of it drops lower At any particular level above the cooled air below, some air that started above that level will drop below that level. This decreases the amount of air above that level, and hence the weight of air above that level. This requires that the pressure at that level, pushing upward, needed to support the decreased weight of air above that level, must decrease. Consequently, there must be a relationship between the temperature of air in the lower troposphere relative to surrounding areas and the pressure aloft relative to surrounding areas at the same level aloft.
Where the lower troposphere is relatively warm compared to surrounding areasthe pressure aloft, above the relatively warm air, must be relatively high compared to surrounding areas at the same level aloft Where the lower troposphere is relatively cool compared to surrounding areasthe pressure aloft, above the relatively cool air, must be relatively low compared to surrounding areas at the same level aloft As observational evidence that this is true, note how similar the patterns shown on these two maps are: Can't add air through the top of a column it has no true top Can't add air through the bottom up through the ocean or land surface Can add air through the sides of the column wind!
However, wind by itself isn't enough, because air can be entering and leaving different parts of the column at the same rate, producing no net change in the amount of air in the column Must have air entering the column faster than it is leaving convergence of winds or leaving faster than it is entering divergence of winds. Winds converging in an areas adds air to a column, increasing its weight and increasing the surface pressure. Relatively high surface pressures develop where winds aloft converge Relatively low surface pressures develop where winds aloft diverge.
To summarize so far see class summary for Monday, May 2: Pressure differences between places at the surface push air at the surface into motion.