Setting and implementing commitments related to deforestation, conversion of other 1D: Verifiable actions and time-bound targets. engagement to define the role of the Accountability Framework in helping to address. They show that verifiability is weaker than accountability as the former does not require We notice that our definition implicitly assumes authenticated channels. accountable randomness is closely related to the notion of verifiable random. methodology to analyze their verifiability: we define a formal framework where we Notable notions related to verifiability are accountability and auditability.
Plagiarism involves presenting the ideas or research of others as one's own. The individual researcher has an independent responsibility not to accept departures from good scientific practice, on his or her own account or that of others. Good citation practice It is in the nature of research to build on research by others. Researchers who take advantage of the ideas and research by others, both published and unpublished, must acknowledge this accurately, so that it is clear what the researcher's own contribution is.
Researchers must give a balanced and correct presentation of the research of others. Citations make research traceable and verifiable. Verification Researchers and research institutions must make data available to others for verification after a certain period. If the data are not used within this period, they should be made available to other researchers. Within the framework of existing rules and regulations, institutions should have guidelines and procedures for preserving research data, in such a way that they can be retrieved - also after researchers have finished working at the institution.
Researchers must observe good publication practice. They must clarify individual responsibilities in group work as well as the rules for co-authorship. Honorary authorship is unacceptable. When several authors contribute, each authorship must be justified.
She has a variety of digital claims that explain her qualifications, schooling, continuing education achievements, and board certifications. These are all stored in the credential repository provided by her employer. When she is offered a position with another health provider network, she can automatically transfer all of these claims to her new employer.
She lists her employment history and credentials including degrees, certificates, and digital badges. The website requests verification of her credential claims in order for her credentials to visible when she posts messages.
Verifiable Claims Use Cases
Josie authorizes the sharing of the relevant claims with the website, and the site verifies them before allowing Josie to expose them. The forum allows users to register anonymous accounts, but it also allows users to obtain badges based upon real world certifications. Paula has been certified as an aid worker, and wishes that information to be marked on her posts. She shares her certificate with the forum, but limits it to only verifying that she is the holder of the certificate, that she is the subject of it, and that she is an aid worker.
In this way she maintains her anonymity in this controversial forum while still being able to assist her fellow countrymen. Cindy has applied for the job. Unlike many applicants, she has attached her education credentials - college degree, additional specific software training, etc. Because her materials are verifiable and verified, her application is immediately forwarded as a viable candidate. Governments and other widely recognized entities are well positioned to provide such identification in a verifiable digital form.
As she is still a new driver, and may be pulled over for a traffic violation, she would like to receive a credential that asserts a claim that she has right to drive a car. She requests a credential from the certifying authority issuer that she can use to prove to the officer credential inspector that her claim is valid. In order to speed processing through immigration check points, he applies for a digital passport from his governmental authority. After satisfying background check requirements, the authority issues Tom an electronic version of his passport.
This version is verifiable and retains a history of all the places he visits so that immigration officials can quickly and easily evaluate his suitability as a visitor to their country.
Scientific integrity, truthfulness and accountability - Etikkom
Once they are satisfied, the will automatically add the details of this new visit to Tom's passport. Ivan has a collection of verifiable claims that are assembed into his air travel Identity Profile. When Ivan needs to pass through a security checkpoint at his airport, he presents this profile before entering the line. Because his identification can be immediately and automatically verified, he is permitted to skip the long line and go straight to the metal detector. Anoushka is one such, having been forced to flee her village along with her mother and younger brother.
They reach an IFRC center just across the broder in a relatively safe area, but with no documentation. Since the government of her homeland is in turmoil, there is no way for the IFRC staff to easilty establish their identities. Fortunately, Anoushka had been issued a self-soverign proof of birth, attached to which is the proof of birth and marriage for her parents.
She is able to retrieve this because it is available from many places on the Internet. Since it is verifiable, the IFRC is comfortable vouching for them and resettling them in a safer area for the duration of the conflict. User tasks Use cases are often used as a driver for requirements. While the users of Verifiable Claims have needs across many domains, the tasks associated with those needs span the domains. This section summarizes those tasks, as well as requirements related to the tasks, and maps the tasks and requirements back to the associated needs.
Note It is worth noting that the subject may or may not be the same entity as the holder.
Verifiable Claims Use Cases
There are no tasks in these examples that require participation of the subject. Motivation Individuals and organizations need a way to issue claims about themselves or others that can be verified and trusted. It also MUST be possible for the holder to limit the duration for which that information is shared. Motivations Credentials may be issued about a subject that include multiple attributes, only some of which are required when verifying a specific criteria is satisfied.
The holder should have the ability to satisfy the criteria without revealing additional attributes that are not required. It MUST be possible to do this in an automated fashion. Motivations In many environments such as order processing information such as a payer's address, citizenship, or age need to be automatically verified in order to complete the transaction.
It MUST also be possible for the holder to move a claim among credential repositories. Motivation A claim is under the control of its holder.
That holder will choose where their claims are stored based upon a variety of factors e. The holder needs to be able to easily choose among various credential repositories, and also to be able to migrate their claims to another without requesting new claims from the claim issuer. Competition in this space will foster innovation and cost savings. Multiple providers in this space will improve reliabilty.
Motivations An inspector may require that a holder verify aspects of their suitability for a transaction. In this case, the holder must be able to select which, if any, Verifiable Claim stored with their Credential Repository is used to satisfy the inspector. Motivation An entity issuer discovers that a claim they have issued and are endorsing for an end user subjectis no longer valid and wishes to revoke the issued claim.
User sequences The transaction examples in this section basic ways in which Verifiable Claims might be used. They are not meant to be architecturally constraining. Instead, they are meant to help illustrate the basic way it could be done in a typical commerce situation.
Again - please remember that it is just an example, and should not be thought of as the canonical way such a claims environment must be implemented. Expanding on these steps: Jane asks her User Agent to help her get a Verifiable Claim about her identity. Her user agent connects her to a certificate issuer that is able to verify her identity. The issuer examines her documentation.
Accountability: definition and relationship to verifiability
They are satisfied, so the issuer generates a Verifiable Claim for Jane that includes information about her identity linked to their own trusted credential. The issuer delivers the credential back to Jane's User Agent. Jane views the credential to ensure it reflects her requirements. When she is satisfied, she instructs her User Agent to save the Verifiable Claim so she can use it in the future.
The UA communicates with her Credential Repositoryinstructing it to store the new claim. The UA shows Jane her claim collection - confirming everything she has available.
Jane decides to shop on the web site WinesOfTheWorld. The merchant's site requires Jane be 21 years of age and requests Jane prove this via a user agent-supported API call. Jane's user agent asks her credential repository for the proof. The credential repository shows Jane three Verifiable Claims it knows of that can assert this claim e.
Jane selects one of these and authorizes that it be shared with the merchant. The credential repository returns the selected claim as a response to the user agent-supported API call, which in turn delivers it to the merchant. The merchant's server verifies that the claim is valid and satisfies the requirement. The merchant redirects the user agent to the web site with appropriate authorization. Terminology This document attempts to communicate the concepts outlined in the Open Credentials space by using specific terms to discuss particular concepts.
This terminology is included below and linked to throughout the document to aid the reader: Typically a holder's identity is also the primary subject of the information in a credential.
A holder is often the entity that initiates the transmission of a credential. An entity may have multiple identities associated with it.
An entity may have multiple identity profiles associated with it. Acknowledgements This section is non-normative.